low threshold
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2022 ◽  
Vol 148 ◽  
pp. 107762
Shengqiong Chen ◽  
Longjie Li ◽  
Feng Jin ◽  
Cheng Lu ◽  
Shengjie Zhao ◽  

Vanessa Mai ◽  
Caterina Neef ◽  
Anja Richert

AbstractCoaching has become an important didactic tool for reflecting learning processes in higher education. Digital media and AI-based technologies such as chatbots can support stimulating self-coaching processes. For the use case of student coaching on the topic of exam anxiety, the working alliance between a coaching chatbot and a human coachee is investigated. Two coachbot interaction methods are compared: A click-based chatbot (implemented in a rule-based system), where the coachee can only click on one answer, and a writing-based chatbot (implemented in a conversational AI), which allows the coachee to freely type in their answers. The focus is on which coachbot interaction method enables a stronger working alliance between coach and coachee: a click-based or a writing-based chatbot. The working alliance and the technical realization of the chatbot systems were investigated in an exploratory quantitative study with 21 engineering students. The results indicate that the working alliance in both study conditions can be classified as medium to high overall. The results further show higher values for bonding on a writing-based platform than when using a click-based system. However, click-based systems seem to be more helpful as a low-threshold entry point to coaching, as they guide coachees better through the process by providing predefined answers. An evaluation of the technical realization shows that self-reflection processes through digital self-coaching via chatbot are generally well accepted by students. For further development and research, it is therefore recommendable to develop a “mixed” coachbot that allows interaction via clicking as well as via free writing.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 823
Md. Rafiqul Islam ◽  
Mehrdad Shahmohammadi Beni ◽  
Shigeki Ito ◽  
Shinichi Gotoh ◽  
Taiga Yamaya ◽  

Proton range monitoring and verification is important to enhance the effectiveness of treatment by ensuring that the correct dose is delivered to the correct location. Upon proton irradiation, different positron emitting radioisotopes are produced by the inelastic nuclear interactions of protons with the target elements. Recently, it was reported that the 16O(p,2p2n)13N reaction has a relatively low threshold energy, and it could be potentially used for proton range verification. In the present work, we have proposed an analysis scheme (i.e., algorithm) for the extraction and three-dimensional visualization of positron emitting radioisotopes. The proposed step-by-step analysis scheme was tested using our own experimentally obtained dynamic data from a positron emission mammography (PEM) system (our developed PEMGRAPH system). The experimental irradiation was performed using an azimuthally varying field (AVF) cyclotron with a 80 MeV monoenergetic pencil-like beam. The 3D visualization showed promising results for proton-induced radioisotope distribution. The proposed scheme and developed tools would be useful for the extraction and 3D visualization of positron emitting radioisotopes and in turn for proton range monitoring and verification.

ACS Photonics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Likuan Feng ◽  
Ziming Wang ◽  
Weihua Wang ◽  
Feng Li ◽  
Yinjuan Ren ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Peizhi Du ◽  
Daniel Egana-Ugrinovic ◽  
Rouven Essig ◽  
Mukul Sholapurkar

Line Sofie Loken ◽  
Helena Backlund Wasling ◽  
Håkan Olausson ◽  
Francis McGlone ◽  
Johan Wessberg

Unmyelinated tactile (CT) afferents are abundant in arm hairy skin and have been suggested to signal features of social affective touch. Here we recorded from unmyelinated low-threshold mechanosensitive afferents in the peroneal and radial nerves, with the most distal receptive fields located on the proximal phalanx of the third finger for the superficial branch of the radial nerve, and near the lateral malleolus for the peroneal nerve. We found that the physiological properties with regard to conduction velocity and mechanical threshold, as well as their tuning to brush velocity, were similar in CT units across the antebrachial (n=27), radial (n=8) and peroneal nerves (n=4). Moreover, we found that while CT afferents are readily found during microneurography of the arm nerves, they appear to be much more sparse in the lower leg compared to C nociceptors. We continued to explore CT afferents with regard to their chemical sensitivity and found that they could not be activated by topical application to their receptive field of either the cooling agent menthol or the pruritogen histamine. In light of previous studies showing the combined effects that temperature and mechanical stimuli have on these neurons, these findings add to the growing body of research suggesting that CT afferents constitute a unique class of sensory afferents with highly specialized mechanisms for transducing gentle touch.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Zhixin Wang ◽  
Filippos Kapsalidis ◽  
Ruijun Wang ◽  
Mattias Beck ◽  
Jérôme Faist

AbstractSemiconductor lasers with extremely low threshold power require a combination of small volume active region with high-quality-factor cavities. For ridge lasers with highly reflective coatings, an ultra-low threshold demands significantly suppressing the diffraction loss at the facets of the laser. Here, we demonstrate that introducing a subwavelength aperture in the metallic highly reflective coating of a laser can correct the phase front, thereby counter-intuitively enhancing both its modal reflectivity and transmissivity at the same time. Theoretical and experimental results manifest a decreasing in the mirror loss by over 40% and an increasing in the transmissivity by 104. Implementing this method on a small-cavity quantum cascade laser, room-temperature continuous-wave lasing operation at 4.5 μm wavelength with an electrical consumption power of only 143 mW is achieved. Our work suggests possibilities for future portable applications and can be implemented in a broad range of optoelectronic systems.

Calvin Lukas Kienbacher ◽  
Jürgen Grafeneder ◽  
Katharina Tscherny ◽  
Mario Krammel ◽  
Verena Fuhrmann ◽  

Abstract Background The COVID-19 pandemic led to widespread use of personal protection equipment (PPE), including filtering face piece (FFP) masks, throughout the world. PPE. Previous studies indicate that PPE impairs neurocognitive performance in healthcare workers. Concerns for personnel safety have led to special recommendations regarding basic life support (BLS) in patients with a potential SARS-CoV-2 infection, including the use of PPE. Established instruments are available to assess attention and dexterity in BLS settings, respectively. We aimed to evaluate the influence of PPE with different types of FFP masks on these two neuropsychological components of EMS personnel during BLS. Methods This was a randomized controlled non-inferiority triple-crossover study. Teams of paramedics completed three 12-min long BLS scenarios on a manikin after having climbed three flights of stairs with equipment, each in three experimental conditions: (a) without pandemic PPE, (b) with PPE including a FFP2 mask with an expiration valve and (c) with PPE including an FFP2 mask without an expiration valve. The teams and intervention sequences were randomized. We measured the shift in concentration performance using the d2 test and dexterity using the nine-hole peg test (NHPT). We compared results between the three conditions. For the primary outcome, the non-inferiority margin was set at 20 points. Results Forty-eight paramedics participated. Concentration performance was significantly better after each scenario, with no differences noted between groups: d2 shift control versus with valve − 8.3 (95% CI − 19.4 to 2.7) points; control versus without valve − 8.5 (− 19.7 to 2.7) points; with valve versus without valve 0.1 (− 11.1 to 11.3) points. Similar results were found for the NHPT: + 0.3 (− 0.7 to 1.4), − 0.4 (− 1.4 to 0.7), 0.7 (− 0.4 to 1.8) s respectively. Conclusion Attention increases when performing BLS. Attention and dexterity are not inferior when wearing PPE, including FFP2 masks. PPE should be used on a low-threshold basis.

2022 ◽  
Qian Xiong ◽  
sihao huang ◽  
Zijun Zhan ◽  
Juan Du ◽  
Xiaosheng Tang ◽  

Biosensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 24
Donghoon Kim ◽  
Bo Jin ◽  
Sol-A Kim ◽  
Wonyeong Choi ◽  
Seonghwan Shin ◽  

The highly sensitive detection of peanut allergens (PAs) using silicon-based electrolyte-gated transistors (Si-EGTs) was demonstrated. The Si-EGT was made using a top-down technique. The fabricated Si-EGT showed excellent intrinsic electrical characteristics, including a low threshold voltage of 0.7 V, low subthreshold swing of <70 mV/dec, and low gate leakage of <10 pA. Surface functionalization and immobilization of antibodies were performed for the selective detection of PAs. The voltage-related sensitivity (SV) showed a constant behavior from the subthreshold regime to the linear regime. The current-related sensitivity (SI) was high in the subthreshold regime and then significantly decreased as the drain current increased. The limit of detection (LOD) was calculated to be as low as 25 pg/mL based on SI characteristics, which is the lowest value reported to date in the literature for various sensor methodologies. The Si-EGT showed selective detection of PA through a non-specific control test. These results confirm that Si-EGT is a high-sensitivity and low-power biosensor for PA detection.

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