vaccination recommendations
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
David Goettler ◽  
Patricia Niekler ◽  
Johannes G. Liese ◽  
Andrea Streng

Abstract Introduction Detailed and up-to-date data on the epidemiology and healthcare costs of Influenza are fundamental for public health decision-making. We analyzed inpatient data on Influenza-associated hospitalizations (IAH), selected complications and risk factors, and their related direct costs for Germany during ten consecutive years. Methods We conducted a retrospective cost-of-illness study on patients with laboratory-confirmed IAH (ICD-10-GM code J09/J10 as primary diagnosis) by ICD-10-GM-based remote data query using the Hospital Statistics database of the German Federal Statistical Office. Clinical data and associated direct costs of hospital treatment are presented stratified by demographic and clinical variables. Results Between January 2010 to December 2019, 156,097 persons were hospitalized due to laboratory-confirmed Influenza (J09/J10 primary diagnosis). The annual cumulative incidence was low in 2010, 2012 and 2014 (1.3 to 3.1 hospitalizations per 100,000 persons) and high in 2013 and 2015-2019 (12.6 to 60.3). Overall direct per patient hospitalization costs were mean (SD) 3521 EUR (± 8896) and median (IQR) 1805 EUR (1502; 2694), with the highest mean costs in 2010 (mean 8965 EUR ± 26,538) and the lowest costs in 2012 (mean 2588 EUR ± 6153). Mean costs were highest in 60-69 year olds, and in 50-59, 70-79 and 40-49 year olds; they were lowest in 10-19 year olds. Increased costs were associated with conditions such as diabetes (frequency 15.0%; 3.45-fold increase compared to those without diabetes), adiposity (3.3%; 2.09-fold increase) or immune disorders (5.6%; 1.88-fold increase) and with Influenza-associated complications such as Influenza pneumonia (24.3%; 1.95-fold), bacterial pneumonia (6.3%; 3.86-fold), ARDS (1.2%; 10.90-fold increase) or sepsis (2.3%; 8.30-fold). Estimated overall costs reported for the 10-year period were 549.6 Million euros (95% CI 542.7-556.4 million euros). Conclusion We found that the economic burden of IAH in Germany is substantial, even when considering solely laboratory-confirmed IAH reported as primary diagnosis. The highest costs were found in the elderly, patients with certain underlying risk factors and patients who required advanced life support treatment, and median and mean costs showed considerable variations between single years. Furthermore, there was a relevant burden of disease in middle-aged adults, who are not covered by the current vaccination recommendations in Germany.

Geriatrics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 4
Gaëlle Farge ◽  
Benoît de Wazières ◽  
Jocelyn Raude ◽  
Clémence Delavelle ◽  
Fabienne Humbert ◽  

Elderly people are at high risk for pneumococcal infections. However, older age is not an eligibility factor for pneumococcal vaccination in France. Adults with certain co-morbidities or immunocompromised states are eligible for vaccination, which leaves adults aged ≥65 years without comorbidities at-risk for pneumococcal infections. The objective of the study was to evaluate the acceptability to healthcare professionals (HCPs) of extending pneumococcal vaccination to all individuals ≥65 years. Based on themes identified in semi-structured interviews with 24 HCPs, a representative sample of 500 general practitioners and pharmacists were surveyed about their knowledge, attitudes and beliefs with respect to pneumococcal vaccination for individuals ≥65 years. Current recommendations for pneumococcal vaccination are poorly understood by participants (mean score: 5.8/10). Respondents were generally supportive of inclusion of age in vaccination recommendations (7.5/10), with 58% being very supportive. For 72% of HCPs, this would contribute to improved vaccination coverage. The strategy could be facilitated by associating pneumococcal vaccination with the influenza vaccination campaign (8.3/10). Pharmacists were favourable to participating in pneumococcal vaccination (8.5/10). In conclusion, extension of pneumococcal vaccination to all people aged ≥65 years would be welcomed by HCPs, simplifying identification of patients to be vaccinated and potentially improving vaccination coverage.

Vaccines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 1426
Giuseppe Murdaca ◽  
Giovanni Noberasco ◽  
Dario Olobardi ◽  
Claudio Lunardi ◽  
Matteo Maule ◽  

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease. The prevalence of SSc ranges from 7 to 700 cases per million worldwide. Due to multiple organ involvement and constant inflammatory state, this group of patients presents an increased risk of infectious diseases. This paper aimed to gather the up-to-date evidence on vaccination strategies for patients with SSc and to be a useful tool for the prevention and management of infectious diseases. The authors conducted a scoping review in which each paragraph presents data on a specific vaccine’s safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy. The work deals with the following topics: SARS-CoV-2, seasonal influenza, S. pneumoniae, HAV, HBV, HZV, N. meningitidis, H. influenzae, HPV, and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 24 ◽  
pp. 101596
Teresa K.L. Boitano ◽  
Casey Daniel ◽  
Young-il Kim ◽  
J. Michael Straughn ◽  
Sylvia Peral ◽  

Vaccines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 1319
Paul Kwok Ming Poon ◽  
Weiju Zhou ◽  
Dicken Cheong Chun Chan ◽  
Kin On Kwok ◽  
Samuel Yeung Shan Wong

Background: Recommendation from doctors is a well-recognized motivator toward vaccine uptake. Family doctors are in the prime position to advise the public on COVID-19 vaccination. We studied the practice and concerns of frontline family doctors concerning COVID-19 vaccination recommendations to patients. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of all family doctors in the Hong Kong College of Family Physicians between June and July 2021. Their practice of making COVID-19 recommendation to patients was assessed. Based on the Health Belief Model, factors associated with doctors’ recommendation practices were explored and examined. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the factors, including COVID-19 vaccine attributes, associated with doctors’ practices in making recommendations. Their own vaccination status and psychological antecedents to vaccine hesitancy were measured. Results: A total of 312 family doctors responded (a 17.6% response rate). The proportion of doctors who had received COVID-19 vaccines was 90.1%. The proportion of doctors who would recommend all patients without contraindications for the vaccination was 64.4%. The proportion of doctors who would proactively discuss COVID-19 vaccines with patients was 52.9%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that doctors’ own COVID-19 vaccination status was the strongest predictor of family doctors making a recommendation to patients (aOR 12.23 95% CI 3.45–43.33). Longer duration of practice, willingness to initiate the relevant discussion with patients and less worry about vaccine side effects on chronic illness patients were the other factors associated with making a COVID-19 vaccination recommendation. Conclusions: Family doctors should be encouraged to get vaccinated themselves and initiate discussions with patients about COVID-19 vaccines. Vaccine safety data on patients with chronic illness, training and guidelines for junior doctors may facilitate the COVID-19 vaccination recommendation practices of family doctors.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Felicita Heidler ◽  
Julia Baldt ◽  
Niklas Frahm ◽  
Silvan Elias Langhorst ◽  
Pegah Mashhadiakbar ◽  

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection represents a serious health risk, especially in chronically ill people. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic immune-mediated neurological disease. Vaccinations play an important role in the therapeutic MS management. This study aimed at determining MS patients’ attitudes toward vaccinations and governmental measures before and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, including associations with sociodemographic and clinical variables. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> In a longitudinal, multicenter study, 200 MS patients were investigated regarding their vaccination attitudes before and after the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Data on vaccination status and burden (physical, psychological, and social) experienced as caused by the pandemic and related governmental safety measures were registered. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Patients with progressive MS felt significantly more pandemic-burdened than patients with relapsing-onset MS (<i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001). Older patients were more frequently willing to get vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 than younger patients (<i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001). After the first pandemic wave, patients with pre-pandemic willingness to comply with vaccination recommendations were more likely to accept recommended standard vaccinations (60% vs. 36%) and a possible SARS-CoV-2 vaccination than pre-pandemic nonwilling patients (66.7% vs. 42.0%). <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> The vaccination topic was not immediately present in many patients before the pandemic. MS patients need comprehensive and understandable education meeting their concerns using evidence-based and convincing arguments on the subject of vaccination, particularly younger patients. Older patients are already more often willing to become vaccinated. Complete vaccination status is necessary to avoid multiple infections.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. S467-S467
Mylinh H Le ◽  
Sowmya R Rao ◽  
Alison T Walker ◽  
Edward T Ryan ◽  
Regina C LaRocque ◽  

Abstract Background In January–March 2020, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued multiple warnings regarding COVID-19 travel-associated risks. We sought to describe US travelers seeking pretravel consultation regarding international travel at US Global TravEpiNet (GTEN) sites before and after the initial COVID-19 travel warnings. Methods We prospectively collected data at 22 GTEN sites pre-COVID-19 (January–December 2019) and 18 GTEN sites during the COVID-19 pandemic (April 2020–March 2021). We excluded travelers evaluated during January–March 2020, when CDC travel guidance was evolving rapidly. Travelers used standardized questionnaires to self-report data regarding demographics and travel-related characteristics. Providers confirmed these data and documented their recommendations during pretravel consultation, which could be performed virtually. We conducted descriptive analyses of differences in demographics, travel-related characteristics, vaccinations, and medications (SAS v9.4; Cary, NC). Results Compared with 16,903 pre-COVID-19 consultations, only 1,564 consultations occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, a 90% reduction (Table). During COVID-19, a greater proportion of travelers were children aged 1–5 years, visiting friends and relatives (VFR), with itineraries ≥ 30 days, and going to Africa; a smaller proportion of travelers were aged &gt; 55 years, or traveling to Southeast Asia or the Western Pacific. During COVID-19, fewer vaccine-eligible travelers received vaccines at the pretravel consultation except for yellow fever, and a greater proportion were referred to another provider for vaccination (Figure). Table. Demographics and travel-related characteristics of international travelers seeking pretravel consultation at Global TravEpiNet sites before and during the COVID-19 pandemic Table continued. Demographics and travel-related characteristics of international travelers seeking pretravel consultation at Global TravEpiNet sites before and during the COVID-19 pandemic Figure. Vaccinations and reasons for nonvaccination among vaccine-eligible international travelers at pretravel consultations at Global TravEpiNet (GTEN) sites before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Among vaccine-eligible travelers, we summarized those who were vaccinated at the visit (blue) and not vaccinated (orange). We then categorized reasons for nonvaccination into: provider decision (solid), referral to another provider (dots), traveler refusal (striped), or other (hatched). COVID-19 vaccination was not available at GTEN sites during the analysis period; although COVID-19 vaccinations outside of GTEN sites might have affected vaccination recommendations, they were unlikely to have had a large effect given their limited availability in January-March 2021. Conclusion Compared with pre-COVID-19, US travelers seeking pretravel consultations at GTEN sites during the pandemic might be at higher risk for travel-related infections given VFR status, traveling for ≥ 30 days, and going to Africa. Fewer vaccine-eligible travelers were vaccinated at pretravel consultations, which could reflect more virtual pretravel consultations. Counseling and vaccination for international travelers continue to be priorities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (4) ◽  
pp. 231-238
Seong Hyeon Lee ◽  
Ki Hoon Ahn

Several vaccines have been developed to combat the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including messenger Ribonucleic acid (mRNA, Pfizer-BioNtech, and Moderna) and viral vector (AstraZeneca and Janssen) types. Unfortunately, reports of COVID-19 exposure during pregnancy are scarce, as pregnancy and breastfeeding were among the exclusion criteria in the efficacy and safety studies of major COVID-19 vaccines. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently included pregnancy as a risk factor for severe COVID-19 infection, although the absolute risk is low. Previous experience in pregnant women with mRNA vaccines is lacking despite such vaccines not using live viruses, being unable to cause disease, not interacting with an individual's DNA, and being unable to cause genetic mutations. In addition, previous studies in animals have not revealed any safety issues with such vaccine types for female reproduction or fetal development. Vaccine-induced antibody titers were equivalent in pregnant and lactating women versus non-pregnant women. Given the data on increased mortality and morbidity associated with COVID-19 during pregnancy, it may be unethical to withhold vaccinations based on a theoretical risk and a lack of clinical research in this population. Additionally, a careful review of the vaccination recommendations for pregnant women by the academic community and government through additional efficacy and safety studies tailored to the situation in Korea is needed.

Vaccines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 1232
Raffaele Antonelli-Incalzi ◽  
Francesco Blasi ◽  
Michele Conversano ◽  
Giovanni Gabutti ◽  
Sandro Giuffrida ◽  

Immunization through vaccination is a milestone achievement that has made a tremendous contribution to public health. Historically, immunization programs aimed firstly to protect children, who were disproportionally affected by infectious diseases. However, vaccine-preventable diseases can have significant impacts on adult mortality, health, and quality of life. Despite this, adult vaccinations have historically been overlooked in favor of other health priorities, because their benefits to society were not well recognized. As the general population is aging, the issue of vaccination in older adults is gaining importance. In high-income countries, recommendations for the routine vaccination of older adults have been gradually introduced. The Italian National Immunization Plan is considered to be among the most advanced adult vaccination plans in Europe. However, available data indicate there is low adherence to vaccination recommendations in Italy. The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the damage that can be caused by an infectious disease, especially among adults and individuals with comorbidities. The aim of this “Manifesto”, therefore, is to provide an overview of the existing evidence on the value of adult vaccination, in the Italian context, with a call to action to healthcare providers and health authorities.

2021 ◽  
Zeinab Mohseni Afshar ◽  
Arefeh Babazadeh ◽  
Alireza Janbakhsh ◽  
Feizollah Mansouri ◽  
Terence T. Sio ◽  

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