microbiological analysis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 178
Author(s):  
Magdalena Grochowska ◽  
Dominika Ambrożej ◽  
Aneta Wachnik ◽  
Urszula Demkow ◽  
Edyta Podsiadły ◽  
...  

Since the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, many countries have introduced measures to limit the transmission. The data based on ICD-10 codes of lower respiratory tract infections and microbiological analysis of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections were collected. The retrospective five-year analysis of the medical records revealed a substantial decrease in respiratory tract infections during the pandemic year (from April 2020 to March 2021). We noted an 81% decline in the LRTI-associated hospital admissions based on the ICD-10 analysis (from a mean of 1170 admissions per year in the previous four years to 225 admissions between April 2020 through March 2021). According to microbiological analysis, there were 100%, 99%, 87%, and 47% drops in influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rotavirus, and norovirus cases reported respectively during the pandemic season until April 2021 in comparison to pre-pandemic years. However, the prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial infections was stable. Moreover, in August 2021, an unexpected rise in RSV-positive cases was observed. The measures applied during the COVID-19 pandemic turned out to be effective but also had a substantial contribution to the so-far stable epidemiological situation of seasonal infections.


2022 ◽  
Vol 51 (4) ◽  
pp. 819-831
Author(s):  
Svetlana Kuzmina ◽  
Lyudmila Kozubaeva ◽  
Elena Egorova ◽  
Botakoz Kulushtayeva ◽  
Farida Smolnikova

Introduction. Fruit and berry extracts contain biologically active components and acids that can inhibit or activate Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The research objective was to study the effect of berry extracts on the activity of baking yeast S. cerevisiae and the biochemical properties of wheat dough. Study objects and methods. The experiment featured baking yeast Extra and dry berry extracts of raspberries, aronia, sea buckthorn, and rosehip (LLC Wisterra, Altai Region). The study involved standard and industry-specific control methods of raw materials and semi-finished bakery products, as well as som e standard methods of microbiological analysis. Results and discussion. The raspberry extract (3–4%) suppressed the growth and reproduction of the yeast: after 1 h of exposure, the yeast cell count dropped by 1.5–2 times compared to the control sample. The stimulating effect of the sea buckthorn extract increased the growth rate of yeast cells (up to 40% compared to the control). The extracts of aronia and rosehip had practically no effect on the growth rate of yeast cells. However, 2–3% aronia extract increased the fermentation of the dough, as evidenced by a higher dough fermentation property, which was 2 min versus 3 min at the control after 150 min of exposure. Fruit and berry extracts caused a natural increase in the acidity of the dough, which affected the growth rate of yeast cells. Sea buckthorn extracts increased the acidity so much (up to 4.24 pH units) that it could be regarded as acid stress, which increased the growth rate of yeast cells (1.53×106–1.55×106 vs. 1.10×106 in 1 mL of control sample). The lowest growth rate was detected in the samples with the raspberry extract, which is known to have a strong fungistatic effect: the count of yeast cells decreased by 1.5–2 times after an hour of fermentation. Conclusion. Berry extracts can be of practical interest to bakery enterprises as they help to control yeast fermentation and dough maturation time.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Elena A. Deshevaya ◽  
Aleksey V. Kachalkin ◽  
Irina A. Maksimova ◽  
Svetlana V. Fialkina ◽  
Elena V. Shubralova ◽  
...  

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 469
Author(s):  
Pamella de Barros Motta ◽  
Lara Jansiski Motta ◽  
Thalita Molinos Campos ◽  
Marcela Leticia Leal Gonçalves ◽  
Elaine Marcílio Santos ◽  
...  

Background: This systematic review aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of aPDT for the treatment of halitosis. Methods: Search strategies were conducted in October 2021 without language or data restrictions, on the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, LILACS and BBO, as well as a manual search. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with parallel design were considered for inclusion, assessing individuals (adolescents and adults) with a clinical diagnosis of halitosis treated with photodynamic therapy (aPDT). Primary outcomes assessed were halitosis measurements, adverse events and quality of life. The risk of bias for each included study was evaluated with the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and the certainty of the body of the evidence was assessed with the GRADe approach. Results: Six RCTs (total of 225 participants) were included and due to clinical diversities it was not possible to group the outcome data in meta-analyses. Based on very low-certainty evidence (GRADE) the results showed that, when compared to tongue scraper, aPDT seems to promote a little to no difference in reducing halitosis and in the microbiological analysis. No adverse events were reported. Considering aPDT combined with tongue scraper, better outcome results were observed when compared to tongue scraper alone. Conclusions: Based on very low-certainty evidence, the findings of this review are uncertain about the effects of aPDT for halitosis control. Further RCTs with higher number of participants and long term assessments need to be conducted to support the use of this intervention. The protocol was registered in the PROSPERO database (number: CRD42020215319) on 19 November 2020—retrospectively registered.


2022 ◽  
pp. 088532822110649
Author(s):  
Juliana C Rosa ◽  
Jean J Bonvent ◽  
Arnaldo R Santos

The rotary jet spinning technique permits the production of biomaterials that can be used as devices that come into contact with biological systems (including biological fluids) for diagnostic or surgical applications. These materials are composed of synthetic or natural compounds and allow the incorporation of drugs for therapeutic purposes. Two solutions containing 50% poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and 50% poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) diluted in three different solvents were prepared for rotary jet spinning (RJS) process. Vancomycin, an antibiotic indicated for the treatment of severe staphylococcal infections in patients with penicillin allergy, was added in the polymer solutions, to obtain drug-loaded fibrous mats. Morphological surface characterization by scanning electron microscopy revealed heterogeneous pores in the microfibers. Vancomycin loading interfered with the morphology of all samples in terms of fiber size, leading to smaller diameter fibers. Attenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for identification of the samples. The vibrational characteristics of PCL/PLA and vancomycin were consistent with expectations. Vero cell culture assays by the extract dilution and direct contact methods revealed the absence of cytotoxicity, except for the sample prepared with 50% of PCL and of a 9/2 (V/V) vancomycin content, with the growth of confluent and evenly spread cells on the fibrous mats surface. Microbiological analysis, performed on Staphylococcus aureus by the halo inhibition test and by the broth dilution method, showed that the antibacterial activity of vancomycin was maintained by the loading process in the polymer fibers. The results showed that rotary jet spinning produces satisfactory amounts of Vancomycin-loaded fibers, as potential web dressing for wound repair


Author(s):  
Irene Isabel López-Torres ◽  
Javier Vaquero-Martín ◽  
Ana-Isabel Torres-Suárez ◽  
Federico Navarro-García ◽  
Ana-Isabel Fraguas-Sánchez ◽  
...  

Abstract Purpose Microencapsulation techniques have allowed the addition of rifampicin to bone cement, but its in vivo efficacy has not been proven. The aim of our study is to determine the superiority of cement containing gentamicin and rifampicin microcapsules in the treatment of PJI versus cement exclusively containing gentamicin. Methods An S. aureus PJI was induced in 15 NZW rabbits. A week after inoculation, the first stage of replacement was carried out, and the animals were divided into two groups: group R received a spacer containing gentamicin and rifampicin microcapsules, and group C received a spacer containing gentamicin. Intra-articular release curve of rifampicin and infection and toxicity markers were monitored for four weeks post-operatively, when microbiological analysis was performed. Results The microbiological cultures showed a significantly lower growth of S. aureus in soft tissue (2.3·104 vs 0; p = 0.01) and bone (5.7·102 vs 0; p = 0.03) in the group with rifampicin microcapsules. No differences were found in systemic toxicity markers. Rifampicin release from the cement spacer showed higher concentrations than the staphylococcal MIC throughout the analysis. Conclusion The in vivo analyses demonstrated the superiority of cement containing gentamicin and rifampicin microcapsules versus the isolated use of gentamicin in the treatment of PJI in the rabbit model without serious side effects due to the systemic absorption of rifampicin. Given the increasing incidence of staphylococci-related PJI, the development of new strategies for intra-articular administration of rifampicin for its treatment has a high clinical impact.


Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 425
Author(s):  
Ericles Otávio Santos ◽  
Pedro Lima Emmerich Oliveira ◽  
Thaís Pereira de Mello ◽  
André Luis Souza dos Santos ◽  
Carlos Nelson Elias ◽  
...  

The wide application of additive manufacturing in dentistry implies the further investigation into oral micro-organism adhesion and biofilm formation on vat-photopolymerization (VP) dental resins. The surface characteristics and microbiological analysis of a VP dental resin, printed at resolutions of 50 μm (EG-50) and 100 μm (EG-100), were evaluated against an auto-polymerizing acrylic resin (CG). Samples were evaluated using a scanning electron microscope, a scanning white-light interferometer, and analyzed for Candida albicans (CA) and Streptococcus mutans (SM) biofilm, as well as antifungal and antimicrobial activity. EG-50 and EG-100 exhibited more irregular surfaces and statistically higher mean (Ra) and root-mean-square (rms) roughness (EG-50-Ra: 2.96 ± 0.32 µm; rms: 4.05 ± 0.43 µm / EG-100-Ra: 3.76 ± 0.58 µm; rms: 4.79 ± 0.74 µm) compared to the CG (Ra: 0.52 ± 0.36 µm; rms: 0.84 ± 0.54 µm) (p < 0.05). The biomass and extracellular matrix production by CA and SM and the metabolic activity of SM were significantly decreased in EG-50 and EG-100 compared to CG (p < 0.05). CA and SM growth was inhibited by the pure unpolymerized VP resin (48 h). EG-50 and EG-100 recorded a greater irregularity, higher surface roughness, and decreased CA and SM biofilm formation over the CG.


2022 ◽  
pp. 131-136
Author(s):  
I. D’Ippolito ◽  
S.M. Mang ◽  
H.S. Elshafie ◽  
I. Camele ◽  
G. Scillitani ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
Author(s):  
E. M. Vogel ◽  
L. L. M. Marques ◽  
A. A. Droval ◽  
A. M. Gozzo ◽  
F. A. R. Cardoso

Abstract As there is a great scarcity of studies on the importance of good compounding practices in the preparation of cosmetics, this study aimed to evaluate the quality control of cosmetics with active ingredient caffeine for the treatment of cellulite prepared by magistrals pharmacies. Microbiological analyzes, pH determination, color measurement, quantification of the percentage of the active ingredient caffeine and viscosity in creams and gels with 5% of the active ingredient caffeine were performed. In the microbiological analysis, the presence of molds and yeasts was verified above the permitted level according to the Brazilian pharmacopoeia. The pH decreased over time, contributing to the formulations becoming more acidic. In the color parameters, it was found that pharmacy F4 showed a brownish color, both for the gel and for the cream. The percentage of caffeine was within specifications in all formulations and the viscosity remained unchanged during the shelf life of the samples. It is important that the compounding pharmacies demand more effectively the commitment of the team, as well as the analysis of the raw material according to the microbiological control regulations to translate into the quality of the products prepared by the pharmacies and favor the consumer in the effective objective that the product you want to achieve.


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