AbstractEvaluating the productivity potential of shale gas well before fracturing reformation is imperative due to the complex fracturing mechanism and high operation investment. However, conventional single-factor analysis method has been unable to meet the demand of productivity potential evaluation due to the numerous and intricate influencing factors. In this paper, a data-driven-based approach is proposed based on the data of 282 shale gas wells in WY block. LightGBM is used to conduct feature ranking, K-means is utilized to classify wells and evaluate gas productivity according to geological features and fracturing operating parameters, and production optimization is realized through random forest. The experimental results show that shale gas productivity potential is basically determined by geological condition for the total influence weights of geologic properties take the proportion of 0.64 and that of engineering attributes is 0.36. The difference between each category of well is more obvious when the cluster number of well is four. Meanwhile, those low production wells with good geological conditions but unreasonable fracturing schemes have the greatest optimization space. The model constructed in this paper can classify shale gas wells according to their productivity differences, help providing suggestions for engineers on productivity evaluation and the design of fracturing operating parameters of shale gas well.
AbstractUnderstanding the changes of the near-wellbore pore pressure associated with the reservoir depletion is greatly significant for the development of ultra-deep natural gas reservoirs. However, there is still a great challenge for the fluid flow and geomechanics in the reservoir depletion. In this study, a fully coupled model was developed to simulate the near-wellbore and reservoir physics caused by pore pressure in ultra-deep natural gas reservoirs. The stress-dependent porosity and permeability models as well as geomechanics deformation induced by pore pressure were considered in this model, and the COMSOL Multiphysics was used to implement and solve the problem. The numerical model was validated by the reservoir depletion from Dabei gas field in China, and the effects of reservoir properties and production parameters on gas production, near-wellbore pore pressure and permeability evolution were discussed. The results show that the gas production rate increases nonlinearly with the increase in porosity, permeability and Young’s modulus. The lower reservoir porosity will result in the greater near-wellbore pore pressure and the larger rock deformation. The permeability changes have little effect on geomechanics deformation while it affects greatly the gas production rate in the reservoir depletion. With the increase in the gas production rate, the near-wellbore pore pressure and permeability decrease rapidly and tend to balance with time. The reservoir rocks with higher deformation capacity will cause the greater near-wellbore pore pressure.
AbstractThe present study aims to investigate the origin, type, thermal maturity and hydrocarbon generation potential of organic matter and paleo-depositional environment of the Early Paleocene (Danian) Hangu Formation outcropped in the Kala-Chitta Range of Northwest Pakistan, Eastern Tethys. Organic-rich shale and coal intervals were utilized for geochemical analyses including TOC (total organic carbon) and Rock–Eval pyrolysis coupled with carbon (δ13Corg) and nitrogen (δ15Norg) stable isotopes. The organic geochemical results showed that the kerogen Type II (oil/gas prone) and Type III (gas prone) dominate the investigated rock units. The TOC (wt%) and S2 yield indicate that the rock unit quantifies sufficient organic matter (OM) to act as potential source rock. However, the thermal maturity Tmax°C marks the over maturation of the OM, which may be possibly linked with the effect attained from nearby tectonically active Himalayan Foreland Fold-and-Thrust Belt system and associated metamorphosed sequences. The organic geochemical analyses deciphered indigenous nature of the OM and resultant hydrocarbons. The δ13Corg and δ15Norg stable isotopic signatures illustrated enrichment of the OM from both marine and terrestrial sources accumulated into the Hangu Formation. The Paleo-depositional model established using organic geochemical and stable isotopic data for the formation supports its deposition in a shallow marine proximal inner shelf environment with prevalence of sub-oxic to anoxic conditions, a scenario that could enhance the OM preservation. Overall, the formation holds promising coal and shale intervals in terms of organic richness, but due to relatively over thermal maturation, it cannot act as an effective source rock for liquid hydrocarbon generation and only minor amount of dry gas can be expected. In implication, the results of this study suggest least prospects of liquid hydrocarbon generation potential within Hangu Formation at studied sections.
AbstractRecent advances in computer sciences have resulted in a significant improvement in reservoir modeling, which is an important stage in studying and comprehending reservoir geometry and properties. It enables the collection of various types of activities such as seismic, geological, and geophysical aspects in a single container to facilitate the characterization of reservoir continuity and homogeneity. The main goal of this work is to build a three-dimensional reservoir model of the Abu Roash G reservoir in the Hamra oil field with enough detail to represent both vertical and lateral reservoir heterogeneity at the well, multi-well, and field scales. The Late Cenomanian Abu Roash G Member is the main reservoir in the Hamra oil field. It is composed mainly of shale, carbonate and some streaks of sandstone, these streaks are shaly in some parts. Conducting the 3D geostatic model begins with the interpretation of seismic data to detect reflectors and horizons, as well as fault picking to explain the structural framework and frequently delineate the container style with proposed limitations to construct the structural model. The lithology and physical properties of Abu Roash G reservoir rock, including total and effective porosity and fluid saturation, were determined using well log data from four wells in the Hamra field. The constructed 3D geological model of the Abu Roash G has showed that the petrophysical parameters are controlled by the facies distribution and structure elements, whereas properties are the central part to the northern side of the deltaic environment than the other sides of the same environment. The model will be useful in displaying the reservoir community and indicating prospective zones for enhancing the dynamic model to improve the behavior of the flow unit productivity, as well as, section of the best sites for the future drilling.
AbstractThe main objective of this study is to improve the oil-based filtercake removal at the wellbore second interface through chemical method. The reductions in near-well permeability, bonding strength at wellbore second interface and acidizing treatment are the critical problems in oilfield upstream operations. One of the major causes has been identified as drilling fluid filtrate invasion during the drilling operations. This as result leads to near-well reduction in-flow capacity due to high drawdown pressure and wellbore instability. A number of chemical methods such as enzymes, acids, oxidizers, or their hybrids, have been used, however, due to the presence of a number of factors prior to its removal, there are still many challenges in cleaning oil-based filtercake from the wellbore surface. There is a need for development an effective method for improving oil-based filtercake removal. This study presents a novel Alkali-Surfactant (KV-MA) solution developed in the laboratory to optimize the filtercake removal of oil–gas wellbore. The Reynold number for KV-MA solution was found to be 9,068 indicating that turbulent flow regime will dominate in the annulus which enhances the cleaning efficiency. The wettability test established that, contact angle of 14° was a proper wetting agent. The calculated cleaning efficiency was 86.9%, indicating that it can effectively remove the oil-based filtercake. NaOH reacts with the polar components in the oil phase of the oil-based filtercake to produce ionized surface-active species; hence reducing the Interfacial Tension. Surfactant quickens the diffusion of ionized species from the interface to the bulk phase.
AbstractThe Cenozoic Çankırı-Çorum basin, with sedimentary facies of varying thickness and distribution, contains raw matters such as coal deposits, oil shales and evaporate. Source rock and sedimentary environment characteristics of the oil shale sequence have been evaluated. The studied oil shales have high organic matter content (from 2.97 to 15.14%) and show excellent source rock characteristics. Oil shales are represented by very high hydrogen index (532–892 mg HC/g TOC) and low oxygen index (8–44 mgCO2/g TOC) values. Pyrolysis data indicate that oil shales contain predominantly Type I and little Type II kerogen. The biomarker data reveal the presence of algal, bacterial organic matter and terrestrial organic matter with high lipid content. These findings show that organic matters in the oil shales can generate hydrocarbon, especially oil. High C26/C25, C24/C23 and low C22/C21 tricyclic terpane, C31R/C30 hopane and DBT/P ratios indicate that the studied oil shales were deposited in a lacustrine environment, and very low Pr/Ph ratio is indicative of anoxic character for the depositional environment. Tmax values from the pyrolysis analysis are in the range of 418–443 °C, and production index ranges from 0.01 to 0.08. On the gas chromatography, high Pr/nC17 and Ph/nC18 ratios and CPI values significantly exceeding 1 were determined. Very low 22S/(22S + 22R) homohopane, 20S/(20S + 20R) sterane, diasterane/sterane and Ts/(Ts + Tm) ratios were calculated from the biomarker data. Results of all these analyses indicate that Alpagut oil shales have not yet matured and have not entered the oil generation window.
AbstractRe-injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) in deep saline formation is a promising approach to allow high CO2 gas fields to be developed in the Southeast Asia region. However, the solubility between CO2 and formation water could cause injectivity problems such as salt precipitation and fines migration. Although both mechanisms have been widely investigated individually, the coupled effect of both mechanisms has not been studied experimentally. This research work aims to quantify CO2 injectivity alteration induced by both mechanisms through core-flooding experiments. The quantification injectivity impairment induced by both mechanisms were achieved by varying parameters such as brine salinity (6000–100,000 ppm) and size of fine particles (0–0.015 µm) while keeping other parameters constant, flow rate (2 cm3/min), fines concentration (0.3 wt%) and salt type (Sodium chloride). The core-flooding experiments were carried out on quartz-rich sister sandstone cores under a two-step sequence. In order to simulate the actual sequestration process while also controlling the amount and sizes of fines, mono-dispersed silicon dioxide in CO2-saturated brine was first injected prior to supercritical CO2 (scCO2) injection. The CO2 injectivity alteration was calculated using the ratio between the permeability change and the initial permeability. Results showed that there is a direct correlation between salinity and severity of injectivity alteration due to salt precipitation. CO2 injectivity impairment increased from 6 to 26.7% when the salinity of brine was raised from 6000 to 100,000 ppm. The findings also suggest that fines migration during CO2 injection would escalate the injectivity impairment. The addition of 0.3 wt% of 0.005 µm fine particles in the CO2-saturated brine augmented the injectivity alteration by 1% to 10%, increasing with salt concentration. Furthermore, at similar fines concentration and brine salinity, larger fines size of 0.015 µm in the pore fluid further induced up to three-fold injectivity alteration compared to the damage induced by salt precipitation. At high brine salinity, injectivity reduction was highest as more precipitated salts reduced the pore spaces, increasing the jamming ratio. Therefore, more particles were blocked and plugged at the slimmer pore throats. The findings are the first experimental work conducted to validate theoretical modelling results reported on the combined effect of salt precipitation and fines mobilisation on CO2 injectivity. These pioneering results could improve understanding of CO2 injectivity impairment in deep saline reservoirs and serve as a foundation to develop a more robust numerical study in field scale.
AbstractIn this paper, we propose a random noise suppression and super-resolution reconstruction algorithm for seismic profiles based on Generative Adversarial Networks, in anticipation of reducing the influence of random noise and low resolution on seismic profiles. Firstly, the algorithm used the residual learning strategy to construct a de-noising subnet to accurate separate the interference noise on the basis of protecting the effective signal. Furthermore, it iterated the back-projection unit to complete the reconstruction of the high-resolution seismic sections image, while responsed sampling error to enhance the super-resolution performance of the algorithm. For seismic data characteristics, designed the discriminator to be a fully convolutional neural network, used a larger convolution kernels to extract data features and continuously strengthened the supervision of the generator performance optimization during the training process. The results on the synthetic data and the actual data indicated that the algorithm could improve the quality of seismic cross-section, make ideal signal-to-noise ratio and further improve the resolution of the reconstructed cross-sectional image. Besides, the observations of geological structures such as fractures were also clearer.
AbstractMiniaturized single-mode thickness-shear pressure transducer combined with high-temperature SOI, silicon on insulator, integrated circuit technology is proposed as network-ready high-pressure high-resolution smart sensor for distributed data acquisition in oil and gas production wells. The transducer miniaturization is investigated with a full 3D computer model previously developed by the authors to assess the impact of intrinsic losses and various geometrical features on transducer performance. Over the last decades there has been a trend toward size reduction of high-resolution pressure transducer. The implemented model provides insight into the evolution of high-resolution pressure transducers from Hewlett-Packard™ to Quartzdyne™ and beyond. Distributed measurement in production oil wells in extreme harsh environment, such as found in the pre-salt layer, is an unsolved problem. The industry move toward electrified wells offers an opportunity for application of smart sensor technology and power line communications to achieve distributed high-resolution data acquisition.