adoptive cell therapy
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 904
Emma Verheye ◽  
Jesús Bravo Melgar ◽  
Sofie Deschoemaeker ◽  
Geert Raes ◽  
Anke Maes ◽  

Immunotherapeutic approaches, including adoptive cell therapy, revolutionized treatment in multiple myeloma (MM). As dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells and key initiators of tumor-specific immune responses, DC-based immunotherapy represents an attractive therapeutic approach in cancer. The past years, various DC-based approaches, using particularly ex-vivo-generated monocyte-derived DCs, have been tested in preclinical and clinical MM studies. However, long-term and durable responses in MM patients were limited, potentially attributed to the source of monocyte-derived DCs and the immunosuppressive bone marrow microenvironment. In this review, we briefly summarize the DC development in the bone marrow niche and the phenotypical and functional characteristics of the major DC subsets. We address the known DC deficiencies in MM and give an overview of the DC-based vaccination protocols that were tested in MM patients. Lastly, we also provide strategies to improve the efficacy of DC vaccines using new, improved DC-based approaches and combination therapies for MM patients.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 271
Francesca Comito ◽  
Rachele Pagani ◽  
Giada Grilli ◽  
Francesca Sperandi ◽  
Andrea Ardizzoni ◽  

The prognosis of patients with advanced cutaneous melanoma has radically changed in the past decade. Nevertheless, primary or acquired resistance to systemic treatment occurs in many cases, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. This review has the purpose of summarizing the current area of interest for the treatment of metastatic or unresectable advanced cutaneous melanoma, including data from recently completed or ongoing clinical trials. The main fields of investigation include the identification of new immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-LAG3, GITR agonist and anti-TIGIT), adoptive cell therapy, vaccines, engineered TCR therapy, IL-2 agonists, novel targets for targeted therapy (new MEK or RAF inhibitors, HDAC, IDO, ERK, Axl, ATR and PARP inhibitors), or combination strategies (antiangiogenetic agents plus immune checkpoint inhibitors, intra-tumoral immunotherapy in combination with systemic therapy). In many cases, only preliminary efficacy data from early phase trials are available, which require confirmation in larger patient cohorts. A more in-depth knowledge of the biological effects of the molecules and identifying predictive biomarkers remain crucial for selecting patient populations most likely to benefit from novel emerging treatment strategies.

2022 ◽  
pp. 73-89
Lan B. Hoang-Minh ◽  
Duane A. Mitchell

Lindsey Carlsen ◽  
Kelsey E. Huntington ◽  
Wafik S. El-Deiry

Though early-stage colorectal cancer has a high 5-year survival rate of 65-92% depending on the specific stage, this probability drops to 13% after the cancer metastasizes. Frontline treatments for colorectal cancer such as chemotherapy and radiation often produce dose-limiting toxicities in patients and acquired resistance in cancer cells. Additional targeted treatments are needed to improve patient outcomes and quality of life. Immunotherapy involves treatment with peptides, cells, antibodies, viruses, or small molecules to engage or train the immune system to kill cancer cells. Preclinical and clinical investigations of immunotherapy for treatment of colorectal cancer including immune checkpoint blockade, adoptive cell therapy, monoclonal antibodies, oncolytic viruses, anti-cancer vaccines, and immune system modulators have been promising, but demonstrate limitations for patients with proficient mismatch repair enzymes. In this review, we discuss preclinical and clinical studies investigating immunotherapy for treatment of colorectal cancer and predictive biomarkers for response to these treatments. We also consider open questions including optimal combination treatments to maximize efficacy, minimize toxicity, and prevent acquired resistance and approaches to sensitize mismatch repair proficient patients to immunotherapy.

2021 ◽  
Abigail K. Grosskopf ◽  
Louai Labanieh ◽  
Dorota D. Klysz ◽  
Gillie Roth ◽  
Peng Xu ◽  

Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) has proven to be highly effective in treating blood cancers such as B cell malignancies, but traditional approaches to ACT are poorly effective in treating the multifarious solid tumors observed clinically. Locoregional cell delivery methods have shown promising results in treating solid tumors compared to standard intravenous delivery methods, but the approaches that have been described to date have several critical drawbacks ranging from complex manufacturing and poor modularity to challenging adminstration. In this work, we develop a simple-to-implement self-assembled and injectable hydrogel material for the controlled co-delivery of CAR-T cells and stimulatory cytokines that improves treatment of solid tumors. We evaluate a range of hydrogel formulations to optimize the creation of a transient inflammatory niche that affords sustained exposure of CAR-T cells and cytokines. This facile approach yields increased CAR-T cell expansion, induces a more tumor-reactive CAR-T phenotype, and improves efficacy in treating solid tumors in mice.

2021 ◽  
Miao Wang ◽  
Yuhan Wei ◽  
Yingrui Li ◽  
Hongzhong Li ◽  
Jiangtao Jin ◽  

Abstract Background The characteristics of the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) are closely related to immunotherapy. Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous tumor, and its TIME is still unclear. Methods We utilized mass cytometry to explore the immune cell heterogeneity in breast cancer. DNTs from healthy volunteers were enriched in vitro. Flow cytometry was used to detect the cell surface receptors of cancer cells and DNT cells. The correlation between immune checkpoints and the abundance of immune cells or prognosis of breast cancer was analyzed by the TCGA database. The mRNA expression of functional genes was performed by quantitative real-time PCR. Results We found that the frequencies of Granzyme B (GZMB)+CD8+T and GZMB+DNT cells in cancer tissues (CA) of breast cancer were lower than those in blood samples of patients (PB), and the frequencies of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1)+CD8+T and PD1+DNT cells in CA were higher than those in PB. DNTs from healthy volunteers had the cytotoxicity on MDA-MB-231. LAG3Ab could upregulate the mRNA expression of IFNγ and perforin by increasing T-BET transcription to enhance cytotoxic effect of DNT cells in vitro. Conclusion Our study revealed the suppressive status of TIME in breast cancer and supported DNT cells had the potential to be applied as a novel adoptive cell therapy for TNBC either alone or combined with LAG3Ab.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Oanh T. P. Nguyen ◽  
Patrick M. Misun ◽  
Christian Lohasz ◽  
Jihyun Lee ◽  
Weijia Wang ◽  

Existing first-line cancer therapies often fail to cope with the heterogeneity and complexity of cancers, so that new therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. Among novel alternative therapies, adoptive cell therapy (ACT) has emerged as a promising cancer treatment in recent years. The limited clinical applications of ACT, despite its advantages over standard-of-care therapies, can be attributed to (i) time-consuming and cost-intensive procedures to screen for potent anti-tumor immune cells and the corresponding targets, (ii) difficulties to translate in-vitro and animal-derived in-vivo efficacies to clinical efficacy in humans, and (iii) the lack of systemic methods for the safety assessment of ACT. Suitable experimental models and testing platforms have the potential to accelerate the development of ACT. Immunocompetent microphysiological systems (iMPS) are microfluidic platforms that enable complex interactions of advanced tissue models with different immune cell types, bridging the gap between in-vitro and in-vivo studies. Here, we present a proof-of-concept iMPS that supports a triple culture of three-dimensional (3D) colorectal tumor microtissues, 3D cardiac microtissues, and human-derived natural killer (NK) cells in the same microfluidic network. Different aspects of tumor-NK cell interactions were characterized using this iMPS including: (i) direct interaction and NK cell-mediated tumor killing, (ii) the development of an inflammatory milieu through enrichment of soluble pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, and (iii) secondary effects on healthy cardiac microtissues. We found a specific NK cell-mediated tumor-killing activity and elevated levels of tumor- and NK cell-derived chemokines and cytokines, indicating crosstalk and development of an inflammatory milieu. While viability and morphological integrity of cardiac microtissues remained mostly unaffected, we were able to detect alterations in their beating behavior, which shows the potential of iMPS for both, efficacy and early safety testing of new candidate ACTs.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 6061
Lindy Davis ◽  
Ashley Tarduno ◽  
Yong-Chen Lu

Patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma have experienced significant clinical responses after checkpoint blockade immunotherapy or adoptive cell therapy. Neoantigens are mutated proteins that arise from tumor-specific mutations. It is hypothesized that the neoantigen recognition by T cells is the critical step for T-cell-mediated anti-tumor responses and subsequent tumor regressions. In addition to describing neoantigens, we review the sentinel and ongoing clinical trials that are helping to shape the current treatments for patients with cutaneous melanoma. We also present the existing evidence that establishes the correlations between neoantigen-reactive T cells and clinical responses in melanoma immunotherapy.

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