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Fishes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 19
Edgaras Ivanauskas ◽  
Andrius Skersonas ◽  
Vaidotas Andrašūnas ◽  
Soukaina Elyaagoubi ◽  
Artūras Razinkovas-Baziukas

The spatial distribution of biomass of main commercial fish species was mapped to estimate the supply of a provisioning fishery service in the Curonian lagoon. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) was used as a proxy to estimate the efficiency of commercial fishing and, subsequently, the potential biomass of fishes. The relationship between distinctive characteristics of the fishing areas and corresponding commercial catches and CPUE was analyzed using multivariate analysis. The total catch values and CPUE used in the analyses were derived from the official commercial fishery records. RDE analysis was used to assess the variation of both catch and CPUE of commercial fish species, while the percentages of bottom sediment type coverage, average depth, annual salinity, and water residence time in each of the fishing squares were used as explanatory variables. This distance e-based redundancy analysis allowed for the use of non-Euclidean dissimilarity indices. Fisheries data spatial distribution map indicated the lack of coherence between the spatial patterns of commercial catches and CPUE distribution in the northern part of the lagoon. Highest CPUE values were estimated in the central-eastern part of the lagoon as compared to the western part of the lagoon where CPUE values were substantially lower. Both total catch and CPUE appeared not to be related to the type of bottom habitats statistically while being spatially correlated in-between. However, the impact of salinity and water residence time calculated using the 3D hydraulic circulation model on the distribution of both CPUE and commercial catches was statistically significant.

2022 ◽  
Jiangbo Jin ◽  
Run Guo ◽  
Minghua Zhang ◽  
Guangqing Zhou ◽  
Qingcun Zeng

Abstract. Tides play an important role in ocean energy transfer and mixing, and provide major energy for maintaining thermohaline circulation. This study proposes a new explicit tidal scheme and assesses its performance in a global ocean model. Instead of using empirical specifications of tidal amplitudes and frequencies, the new scheme directly uses the positions of the Moon and Sun in a global ocean model to incorporate tides. Compared with the traditional method that has specified tidal constituents, the new scheme can better simulate the diurnal and spatial characteristics of the tidal potential of spring and neap tides as well as the spatial patterns and magnitudes of major tidal constituents (K1 and M2). It significantly reduces the total errors of eight tidal constituents (with the exception of N2 and Q1) in the traditional explicit tidal scheme. Relative to the control simulation without tides, both the new and traditional tidal schemes can lead to better dynamic sea level (DSL) simulation in the North Atlantic, reducing significant negative biases in this region. The new tidal scheme also shows smaller positive bias than the traditional scheme in the Southern Ocean. The new scheme is suited to calculate regional distributions of sea level height in addition to tidal mixing.

Abstract A dry-core idealized general circulation model with a stratospheric polar vortex in the northern hemisphere is run with a combination of simplified topography and imposed tropospheric temperature perturbations, each located in the northern hemisphere with a zonal wave number of one. The phase difference between the imposed temperature wave and the topography is varied to understand what effect this has on the occurrence of polar vortex displacements. Geometric moments are used to identify the centroid of the polar vortex for the purposes of classifying whether or not the polar vortex is displaced. Displacements of the polar vortex are a response to increased tropospheric wave activity. Compared to a model run with only topography, the likelihood of the polar vortex being displaced increases when the warm region is located west of the topography peak, and decreases when the cold region is west of the topography peak. This response from the polar vortex is due to the modulation of vertically propogating wave activity by the temperature forcing. When the southerly winds on the western side of the topographically forced anticyclone are collocated with warm or cold temperature forcing, the vertical wave activity flux in the troposphere becomes more positive or negative, respectively. This is in line with recent reanalysis studies which showed that anomalous warming west of the surface pressure high, in the climatological standing wave, precedes polar vortex disturbances.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 152
Chia-Ying Ho ◽  
Tien-Hsi Fang ◽  
Cheng-Han Wu ◽  
Hung-Jen Lee

In the coupled estuary–shelf system, plumes originating from the New Hu-Wei and Choshui rivers, consisting of many terrestrial materials, could contaminate the water of the Mailiao industrial harbor. To determine the contribution of the two rivers to pollution, the interaction between river-forced, tide-generating, and monsoon-driven water motions in and around the Mailiao industrial zone harbor was examined by performing a series of numerical model experiments. We used a three-dimensional general circulation model to examine the interplay between Asian monsoon-driven, river-forced, and tide-induced water motions, one of which could primarily affect the plume. The model-derived results for different river discharges revealed that almost all of the ammonium entering the harbor had a slope-positive trend, with oscillations in response to flood–ebb tidal cycles. The ammonium increased with time and flux, except for the 10 m3/s flux. Although the river discharge flux exceeded 200 m3/s, the ammonium entering the harbor was the same as that of the 200 m3/s flux; the ammonium concentration did not increase significantly with time after the flux exceeded 200 m3/s. In addition, irrespective of flood or ebb tidal currents being suppressed by strong Asian monsoons, this mechanism avoided contaminating the water quality of the harbor while northeasterly winds prevailed. By contrast, the southwesterly monsoon drove the geostrophic current northward along the coast; concurrently, the coastal sea level increased to form the surface isobar slope up toward the coast, producing a secondary flow to accelerate geostrophic alongshore currents. The northward geostrophic currents compressed the plumes shoreward, forming a relatively narrow-band plume; the coupling model demonstrated that the southwesterly monsoon-driven current pushed plumes favorably along the west pier into the harbor.

2022 ◽  
Rana Salim Abou Slaymane ◽  
M. Reda Soliman

Abstract The impacts of the growing population at Lebanon including Lebanese, Palestinian and Syrian refugees, associated with the changing climate parameters such that the precipitation are putting the Bekaa Valley’s water resources in a stymie situation. The water resources are under significant stress limiting the water availability and deteriorating the water quality at the Upper Litani River Basin (ULRB) within the Bekaa Valley region. These impacts are assessed by Water Evaluation And Planning model to assure the water balance and quality at baseline scenario in 2013, and future scenarios reaching 2095, serving by the Watershed Modeling System to get the flow throughout the Litani River’s ungauged zones. Moreover, a General Circulation Model is used to predict the future climate up to 2100 under several emissions scenarios which shows a critical situation at the high emission scenario where the precipitation will be reduced about 87 mm from 2013 to 2095. The aim of this research is to reduce the water pollution that limits the availability of usable water, and to minimize the gap between the demand and supply of water within the ULRB in order to maintain water resources sustainability, and preserves its quality, even after 80 years. In particular, this may be achieved by removing encroachments on the river, by adding waste water treatment plants, by reducing the amount of lost water in damaged water network, and by avoiding the overconsumption of groundwater.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 97
Ching-Huei Kuo ◽  
Pi-Yi Li ◽  
Jun-Yi Lin ◽  
Yi-Lin Chen

This paper presents a water circulation model by combing oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes and mean residence time (MRT) estimation in a high-temperature metamorphic geothermal field, Tuchen, in Yilan, Taiwan. A total of 18 months of oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes of surface water and thermal water show the same variation pattern, heavier values in summer and lighter values in the rest of the year. A shift of δ18O with a relative constant δD indicates the slow fluid–rock interaction process in the study area. Two adjacent watersheds, the Tianguer River and Duowang River, exhibit different isotopic values and imply different recharge altitudes. The seasonal variation enabled us to use stable isotope to estimate mean residence time of groundwater in the study area. Two wells, 160 m and 2200 m deep, were used to estimate mean residence time of the groundwater. Deep circulation recharges from higher elevations, with lighter isotopic values, 5.9‰ and 64‰ of δ18O and δD, and a longer mean residence time, 1148 days, while the shallow circulation comes from another source with heavier values, 5.7‰ and 54.4‰ of δ18O and δD, and a shorter mean residence time, 150 days. A two-circulation model was established based on temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of stable isotopes and the assistance of MRT. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the combined usage for further understanding water circulation of other various temperatures of metamorphic geothermalfields.

2022 ◽  
Vol 46 (4) ◽  
pp. 409-422
S. K. BEHERA ◽  

A simple reductA1 gravity wind-driven ocean circulation model is used to study the interannual variability in the upper layer of the Indian Ocean (24°S-23°N and 3S°E-IIS0E). The monthly mean wind stress for the period 1977-1986 are used as a forcing in the model. The model reproduces most of the observed features of the annual cycle of the upper layer circulation in the Indian Ocean when was forced with the ten-year average monthly mean wind. The circulation features and the model upper layer thickness show considerable interannual variability in most part of the basin; in particular, the Somali Current, the basin wide southern hemisphere gyre, the Equatorial Currents and the gyres in the Bay of Bengal. Six consecutive years starting from 1978 to 1983 which include two bad monsoon years of 1979 and 1982 are chosen to study the interannual variability. February circulation field shows stronger Equatorial Counter Currents in bad monsoon years, whereas. the cunents north of Madagascar flowing up to the African coast are found to be stronger in good monsoon years. The southward return flow from the Southern Gyre in August is strong and more to southern latitudes in the bad monsoon years. The flow circulated eastward to form another eddy east of Southern Gyre. The basin wide gyre of the southern hemisphere (SH) shows less variability in two consecutive normal years than in contrasting years.      

2022 ◽  
Vol 45 (1) ◽  
pp. 17-22
S. K. Dash

The a im of this study is \0 investiga te the sensitivity of the mean posit ion and intensity ofthe T ibetan anticyclon e simula ted in a Gener al Circ ula tion Model (GeM) to presc ri bed sur face bou nda ry conditions. Results of some numerica l experiments show tha t the intensity and position of the anticyclo ne a rc influencedby the global sea surface temperat ures. The simulated Ti betan High is close 10 its climatologicalla titudi na l positiondur ing monsoon mon ths when the seasonal var iations in the surfac e bo un dary co ndi tions a re introdu cedand the model i.;, integrated from the initia l atmospheric conditions co rrespo ndi ng 10 winte r.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 3
Wencheng D. Shao ◽  
Xi Zhang ◽  
João Mendonça ◽  
Thérèse Encrenaz

Abstract Observed chemical species in the Venusian mesosphere show local-time variabilities. SO2 at the cloud top exhibits two local maxima over local time, H2O at the cloud top is uniformly distributed, and CO in the upper atmosphere shows a statistical difference between the two terminators. In this study, we investigated these local-time variabilities using a three-dimensional (3D) general circulation model (GCM) in combination with a two-dimensional (2D) chemical transport model (CTM). Our simulation results agree with the observed local-time patterns of SO2, H2O, and CO. The two-maximum pattern of SO2 at the cloud top is caused by the superposition of the semidiurnal thermal tide and the retrograde superrotating zonal (RSZ) flow. SO2 above 85 km shows a large day–night difference resulting from both photochemistry and the subsolar-to-antisolar (SS-AS) circulation. The transition from the RSZ flows to SS-AS circulation can explain the CO difference between two terminators and the displacement of the CO local-time maximum with respect to the antisolar point. H2O is long-lived and exhibits very uniform distribution over space. We also present the local-time variations of HCl, ClO, OCS, and SO simulated by our model and compare to the sparse observations of these species. This study highlights the importance of multidimensional CTMs for understanding the interaction between chemistry and dynamics in the Venusian mesosphere.

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