evidential support
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Algorithms ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. 341
Cristina Regueiro ◽  
Iñaki Seco ◽  
Iván Gutiérrez-Agüero ◽  
Borja Urquizu ◽  
Jason Mansell

Audit logs are a critical component in today’s enterprise business systems as they provide several benefits such as records transparency and integrity and security of sensitive information by creating a layer of evidential support. However, current implementations are vulnerable to attacks on data integrity or availability. This paper presents a Blockchain-based audit trail mechanism that leverages the security features of Blockchain to enable secure and reliable audit trails and to address the aforementioned vulnerabilities. The architecture design and specific implementation are described in detail, resulting in a real prototype of a reliable, secure, and user-friendly audit trail mechanism.

2021 ◽  
pp. 912-934
Ciaran Driver ◽  
Laurence Harris

Abstract: Since the achievement of democracy, high levels of gross fixed capital formation have been required for the economic and social transformation of South Africa. Public-sector investment has risen, particularly since 2008, but private-business investment has not grown enough, while manufacturing’s share of the capital stock has declined substantially. Common explanations for low investment in manufacturing are examined in the light of empirical literature and are judged to have inadequate evidential support. Industrial policies derived from these views, such as maintaining low interest rates to promote investment, need to be based on stronger evidence. An argument is put forward for a system-based approach to research on the determinants of investment.

Kevin McCain ◽  
Luca Moretti

McCain and Moretti develop a new appearance/seemings-based theory of epistemic justification. This theory, Phenomenal Explanationism, takes as a reasonable starting point the idea that how things appear provides evidence about how the world is. However, unlike other appearance-based theories, Phenomenal Explanationism does not rely on an overly simplistic account of evidential support where things appearing a particular way is sufficient for rationally believing they are that way. Instead, Phenomenal Explanationism takes the insight that appearances are evidence and imbeds it into a broader explanationist framework. In this broader framework the world appearing a particular way provides sufficient justification for believing the world is that way just in case the world being the way it appears best explains the total evidence. Although Phenomenal Explanationism draws inspiration from Phenomenal Conservatism and explanationist theories, it is superior to both in that it offers a satisfying, complete theory of epistemic justification.

2021 ◽  
pp. 83-114
Kevin McCain ◽  
Luca Moretti

This chapter incorporates a sophisticated version of PC (one that draws on the distinctions between kinds of appearances that explained in Chapter 3) into a broader explanationist framework to produce the view that is defended in this book: Phenomenal Explanationism (PE). Explanationism is an account of evidential support, i.e., of how and when evidence supports particular doxastic attitudes toward propositions. However, on its own, Explanationism does not say what evidence is or when one has a particular bit of information as evidence. This is true even when Explanationism is construed, as this chapter does, in terms of mentalist evidentialism. As a theory of evidential support, mentalist Explanationism leaves open which mental states constitute one’s evidence. Explanationism can thus be readily combined with different theories of evidence and evidence possession. If PC is understood as a theory of basic evidence, the sophisticated version of PC can be combined with Explanationism. This chapter introduces a specific version of Explanationism and describes how this variant of PC can be incorporated into it to produce PE. It also describes how PE accounts for both non-inferential and inferential justification (both deductive and inductive). Finally, it explores how PE overcomes the challenges to PC raised in Chapter 2.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
Ignazio Ziano ◽  
Yu Jie Wang ◽  
Sydney Susanto Sany ◽  
Long Ho Ngai ‎ ◽  
Yuk Kwan Lau ◽  

Royzman and Baron (2002) demonstrated that people prefer indirect harm to direct harm: they judge actions that produce harm as a by-product to be more moral than actions that produce harm directly. In two preregistered studies, we successfully replicated Study 2 of Royzman and Baron (2002) with a Hong Kong student sample (N = 46) and an online American Mechanical Turk sample (N = 314). We found con- sistent evidential support for the preference for indirect harm phenomenon (d = 0.46 [0.26, 0.65] to 0.47 [0.18, 0.75]), weaker than effects reported in the original findings of the target article (d = 0.70 [0.40, 0.99]). We also successfully replicated findings regarding reasons underlying a preference for indirect harm (di- rectness, intent, omission, probability of harm, and appearance of harm). All materials, data, and code are available at osf.io/ewq8g.

. Monika ◽  
. Akanksha ◽  
Snigdha Lal

Present article deals with the pharmacognostic specification of selected medicinal plants used in veterinary products for the purpose of their standardization, as evidential support concerning quality determination of plant material in veterinary medicine is scarce and there is poor documentation on primary studies of many species. The plants undertaken for the study were Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) and Tribulus terresteris (Zygophyllaceae) on the basis of their usage relevance in veterinary products. Both plants are official in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.  Morphology as well as various pharmacognostic aspects of different parts of the plant were studied and have been described, which will help in authentication and quality control. The observed microscopic characters of Calotropis procera leaf were rubiaceous type apostomatic stomata, epidermis, collenchymas, parenchyma, vascular bundles, palisade cells, cortical fibres and lamina, trichomes on the cuticle of lamina. Microscopic characteristics of Tribulus terrestris fruit were epicarp cells showing clusters of calcium oxalate crystals, xylem vessels, group of thin walled sclerenchymatous fibres, group of stone cells of mesocarp. Powder microscopy of the Tribulus terrestris fruit shows abundance of epidermal trichomes - simple, short, long, thick walled, multicellular covered trichomes, sclereids. The qualitative microscopic features would prove useful for laying down their pharmacopoeial standards. The present study also provides the information with respect to identification and authentication of crude drug and serves as a reference point for the proper identification of Calotropis procera leaf and Tribulus terrestris fruit, thereby contributing to the scientific world of research.

Synthese ◽  
2021 ◽  
Jakob Ohlhorst

AbstractEpistemic entitlement is a species of internalist warrant that can be had without any evidential support. Unfortunately, for this kind of warrant the so-called problem of demarcation arises, a form of epistemic relativism. I first present entitlement theory and examine what the problem of demarcation is exactly, rejecting that it is either based on bizarreness or disagreement in favour of the thesis that the problem of demarcation is based on epistemic arbitrariness. Second, I argue that arbitrariness generates a problem for entitlement because it undermines epistemic warrant. Third, I draw out some of the consequences that arbitrariness has for an entitlement epistemology, notably that it threatens to generalise to all our beliefs. Finally, I examine how different solutions to the problem of demarcation fare with respect to the danger of arbitrariness. I argue that none of the considered options succeeds in dealing with the risks of arbitrariness.

2021 ◽  
Mathias Sablé-Meyer ◽  
Janek Guerrini ◽  
Salvador Mascarenhas

We show that probabilistic decision-making behavior characteristic of reasoning by representativeness or typicality arises in minimalistic settings lacking many of the features previously thought to be necessary conditions for the phenomenon. Specifically, we develop a version of a classical experiment by Kahneman and Tversky (1973) on base-rate neglect, where participants have full access to the probabilistic distribution, conveyed entirely visually and without reliance on familiar stereotypes, rich descriptions, or individuating information. We argue that the notion of evidential support as studied in (Bayesian) confirmation theory offers a good account of our experimental findings, as has been proposed for related data points from the representativeness literature. In a nutshell, when faced with competing alternatives to choose from, humans are sometimes less interested in picking the option with the highest probability of being true (posterior probability), and instead choose the option best supported by available evidence. We point out that this theoretical avenue is descriptively powerful, but has an as-yet unclear explanatory dimension. Building on approaches to reasoning from linguistic semantics, we propose that the chief trigger of confirmation-theoretic mechanisms in deliberate reasoning is a linguistically-motivated tendency to interpret certain experimental setups as intrinsically contrastive, in a way best cashed out by modern linguistic semantic theories of questions. These questions generate pragmatic pressures for interpreting surrounding information as having been meant to help answer the question, which will naturally give rise to confirmation-theoretic effects, very plausibly as a byproduct of iterated Bayesian update as proposed by modern Bayesian theories of relevance-based reasoning in pragmatics. Our experiment provides preliminary but tantalizing evidence in favor of this hypothesis, as participants displayed significantly more confirmation-theoretic behavior in a condition that highlighted the question-like, contrastive nature of the task.

2021 ◽  
pp. 026553222110389
Chao Han ◽  
Xiaoyan Xiao

The quality of sign language interpreting (SLI) is a gripping construct among practitioners, educators and researchers, calling for reliable and valid assessment. There has been a diverse array of methods in the extant literature to measure SLI quality, ranging from traditional error analysis to recent rubric scoring. In this study, we want to expand the terrain of SLI assessment, by exploring and evaluating a novel method, known as comparative judgment (CJ), to assess SLI quality. Briefly, CJ involves judges to compare two like objects/items and make a decision by choosing the one with higher quality. The binary outcomes from repeated comparisons by a group of judges are then modelled statistically to produce standardized estimates of perceived quality for each object/item. We recruited 12 expert judges to operationalize CJ via a computerized system to assess the quality of Chinese Sign Language interpreting produced by 36 trainee interpreters. Overall, our analysis of quantitative and qualitative data provided preliminary evidential support for the validity and utility of CJ in SLI assessment. We discussed these results in relation to previous SLI literature, and suggested future research to cast light on CJ’s usefulness in applied assessment contexts.

Julius Schönherr ◽  
Javiera Perez Gomez

AbstractThis paper defends the claim that pragmatic encroachment—the idea that knowledge is sensitive to the practical stakes of believing—can explain a distinctive kind of epistemic injustice: the injustice that occurs when prejudice causes someone to know less than they otherwise would. This encroachment injustice, as we call it, occurs when the threat of being met with prejudice raises the stakes for someone to rely on her belief when acting, by raising the level of evidential support required for knowledge. We explain this notion of encroachment injustice, connect it to the empirical literature on implicit bias, and defend it against important objections.

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