oxford nanopore
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2022 ◽  
Linyi Zhang ◽  
Samridhi Chaturvedi ◽  
Chris Nice ◽  
Lauren Lucas ◽  
Zachariah Gompert

Structural variants (SVs) can promote speciation by directly causing reproductive isolation or by suppressing recombination across large genomic regions. Whereas examples of each mechanism have been documented, systematic tests of the role of SVs in speciation are lacking. Here, we take advantage of long-read (Oxford nanopore) whole-genome sequencing and a hybrid zone between two Lycaeides butterfly taxa (L. melissa and Jackson Hole Lycaeides) to comprehensively evaluate genome-wide patterns of introgression for SVs and relate these patterns to hypotheses about speciation. We found >100,000 SVs segregating within or between the two hybridizing species. SVs and SNPs exhibited similar levels of genetic differentiation between species, with the exception of inversions, which were more differentiated. We detected credible variation in patterns of introgression among SV loci in the hybrid zone, with 562 of 1419 ancestry-informative SVs exhibiting genomic clines that deviating from null expectations based on genome-average ancestry. Overall, hybrids exhibited a directional shift towards Jackson Hole Lycaeides ancestry at SV loci, consistent with the hypothesis that these loci experienced more selection on average then SNP loci. Surprisingly, we found that deletions, rather than inversions, showed the highest skew towards excess introgression from Jackson Hole Lycaeides. Excess Jackson Hole Lycaeides ancestry in hybrids was also especially pronounced for Z-linked SVs and inversions containing many genes. In conclusion, our results show that SVs are ubiquitous and suggest that SVs in general, but especially deletions, might contribute disproportionately to hybrid fitness and thus (partial) reproductive isolation.

2022 ◽  
jason.nguyen not provided ◽  
Tracy Lee ◽  
Rebecca Hickman ◽  
Natalie Prystajecky ◽  
John Tyson

This procedure provides instructions for how to generate amplicons across the entire SARS-CoV-2 genome to be used for downstream whole genome sequencing applications, including Illumina MiSeq/NextSeq or Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencing platforms. The steps involved in this protocol were derived from version 3 of Freed et al protocol nCoV-2019 sequencing protocol (RAPID barcoding, 1200bp amplicon)V.3 available at https://dx.doi.org/10.17504/protocols.io.bgggjttw

2022 ◽  
Zsófia Lanszki ◽  
Gábor E. Tóth ◽  
Éva Schütz ◽  
Safia Zeghbib ◽  
Miklós Rusvai ◽  

Abstract Canine distemper virus (CDV) endangers a wide range of wild animal populations and can cross species barriers, representing a significant conservational and animal health risk around the globe. During spring to autumn 2021, according to our current estimates a minimum of 50 wild live red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) died of CDV in Hungary, with CDV lesions. Oral, nasal and rectal swab samples were RT-PCR screened for Canine Distemper Virus from red fox carcasses. To investigate in more detail the origins of these CDV strains, 19 complete genomes were sequenced with a pan-genotype CDV-specific amplicon-based sequencing method developed by our laboratory and optimized for Oxford Nanopore Technologies platform. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genomic sequences and separately the hemagglutinin gene sequences revealed the role of the Europe lineage of CDV as a causative agent for the current epizootic. Here we highlight the growing importance of fast developing rapid sequencing technologies to aid rapid response activities during epidemics or epizootic events. We also emphasize the urgent need for improved surveillance of CDV, considering the epizootic capability of enzootic strains as reported in the current study. For such future efforts, we provide a novel NGS protocol, which facilitates future genomic surveillance studies.

Ruth Plymale ◽  
Griffin Hopkins ◽  
Taylor Johnson ◽  
Taylor Savage ◽  
Danielle Schaal

Soil bacteria can be a valuable source of antimicrobial compounds. Here, we report the complete genomes of four soil bacteria that were isolated by undergraduate microbiology students as part of a course-based research experience. These genomes were assembled using a hybrid approach combining paired-end Illumina reads with Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION reads.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 69
Davide Vacca ◽  
Antonino Fiannaca ◽  
Fabio Tramuto ◽  
Valeria Cancila ◽  
Laura La Paglia ◽  

In consideration of the increasing prevalence of COVID-19 cases in several countries and the resulting demand for unbiased sequencing approaches, we performed a direct RNA sequencing (direct RNA seq.) experiment using critical oropharyngeal swab samples collected from Italian patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 from the Palermo region in Sicily. Here, we identified the sequences SARS-CoV-2 directly in RNA extracted from critical samples using the Oxford Nanopore MinION technology without prior cDNA retrotranscription. Using an appropriate bioinformatics pipeline, we could identify mutations in the nucleocapsid (N) gene, which have been reported previously in studies conducted in other countries. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, the technique used in this study has not been used for SARS-CoV-2 detection previously owing to the difficulties in the extraction of RNA of sufficient quantity and quality from routine oropharyngeal swabs. Despite these limitations, this approach provides the advantages of true native RNA sequencing and does not include amplification steps that could introduce systematic errors. This study can provide novel information relevant to the current strategies adopted in SARS-CoV-2 next-generation sequencing.

2022 ◽  
Doaa Hassan Salem ◽  
Aditya Ariyur ◽  
Swapna Vidhur Daulatabad ◽  
Quoseena Mir ◽  
Sarath Chandra Janga

Nm (2′-O-methylation) is one of the most abundant modifications of mRNAs and non-coding RNAs occurring when a methyl group (–CH3) is added to the 2′ hydroxyl (–OH) of the ribose moiety. This modification can appear on any nucleotide (base) regardless of the type of nitrogenous base, because each ribose sugar has a hydroxyl group and so 2′-O-methyl ribose can occur on any base. Nm modification has a great contribution in many biological processes such as the normal functioning of tRNA, the protection of mRNA against degradation by DXO, and the biogenesis and specificity of rRNA. Recently, the single-molecule sequencing techniques for long reads of RNA sequences data offered by Oxford Nanopore technologies have enabled the direct detection of RNA modifications on the molecule that is being sequenced, but to our knowledge there was only one research attempt that applied this technology to predict the stoichiometry of Nm-modified sites in RNA sequence of yeast cells. To this end, in this paper, we extend this research direction by proposing a bio-computational framework, Nm-Nano for predicting Nm sites in Nanopore direct RNA sequencing reads of human cell lines. Nm-Nano framework integrates two supervised machine learning models for predicting Nm sites in Nanopore sequencing data, namely Xgboost and Random Forest (RF). Each model is trained with set of features that are extracted from the raw signal generated by the Oxford Nanopore MinION device, as well as the corresponding basecalled k-mer resulting from inferring the RNA sequence reads from the generated Nanopore signals. The results on two benchmark data sets generated from RNA Nanopore sequencing data of Hela and Hek293 cell lines show a great performance of Nm-Nano. In independent validation testing, Nm-Nano has been able to identify Nm sites with a high accuracy of 93% and 88% using Xgboost and RF models respectively by training each model with Hela benchmark dataset and testing it for identifying Nm sites on Hek293 benchmark dataset. Thus, Nm-Nano outperforms the Nm sites predictors existing in the literature (not relying on Nanopore technology) that were only limited to predict Nm sites on short reads of RNA sequences and unable to predict Nm sites on long RNA sequence reads. By deploying Nm-Nano to predict Nm sites in Hela cell line, it was revealed that a total of 196 genes was identified to have the most abundance of Nm modification among all other genes that have been modified by Nm in this cell line. Similarly, deploying Nm-Nano to predict Nm sites in Hek393 cell line revealed that a total of 196 genes line was identified to have the most abundance of Nm modification among all other genes that have been modified by Nm in this cell line. According to this, a significant enrichment of a wide range of functional processes like high confidences (adjusted p-val < 0.05) enriched ontologies that were more representative of Nm modification role in immune response and cellular homeostasis were revealed in Hela cell line, and "MHC class 1 protein complex", "mitotic spindle assembly", "response to glucocorticoid", and "nucleocytoplasmic transport" were revealed in Hek293 cell line. The source code of Nm-Nano can be freely accessed https://github.com/Janga-Lab/Nm-Nano.

Ana M. Leiva ◽  
Jenyfer Jimenez ◽  
Hector Sandoval ◽  
Shirley Perez ◽  
Wilmer J. Cuellar

AbstractWe report the complete genome sequence of a field isolate of a novel bipartite secovirid infecting cassava in Colombia, provisionally named "cassava torrado-like virus" (CsTLV). The genome sequence was obtained using Oxford Nanopore Technology, and the 5’ ends were confirmed by RACE. The RNA1 is 7252 nucleotides (nt) long, encoding a polyprotein of 2336 amino acids (aa) containing the typical “replication block”, conserved torradovirus motifs, and a Maf/Ham1 domain, which is not commonly found in viral genomes. The RNA2 is 4469 nt long and contains two overlapping ORFs encoding proteins of 226 and 1179 aa, showing the characteristic genome arrangement of members of the genus Torradovirus.

2022 ◽  
Bede Constantinides ◽  
Hermione Webster ◽  
Jessica Gentry ◽  
Jasmine Bastable ◽  
Laura Dunn ◽  

Genome sequencing is pivotal to SARS-CoV-2 surveillance, elucidating the emergence and global dissemination of acquired genetic mutations. Amplicon sequencing has proven very effective for sequencing SARS-CoV-2, but prevalent mutations disrupting primer binding sites have necessitated the revision of sequencing protocols in order to maintain performance for emerging virus lineages. We compared the performance of Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) Midnight and ARTIC tiling amplicon protocols using 196 Delta lineage SARS-CoV-2 clinical specimens, and 71 mostly Omicron lineage samples with S gene target failure (SGTF), reflecting circulating lineages in the United Kingdom during December 2021. 96-plexed nanopore sequencing was used. For Delta lineage samples, ARTIC v4 recovered the greatest proportion of >=90% complete genomes (81.1%; 159/193), followed by Midnight (71.5%; 138/193) and ARTIC v3 (34.1%; 14/41). Midnight protocol however yielded higher average genome recovery (mean 98.8%) than ARTIC v4 (98.1%) and ARTIC v3 (75.4%), resulting in less ambiguous final consensus assemblies overall. Explaining these observations were ARTIC v4's superior genome recovery in low viral titre/high cycle threshold (Ct) samples and inferior performance in high titre/low Ct samples, where Midnight excelled. We evaluated Omicron sequencing performance using a revised Midnight primer mix alongside the latest ARTIC v4.1 primers, head-to-head with the existing commercially available Midnight and ARTIC v4 protocols. The revised protocols both improved considerably the recovery of Omicron genomes and exhibited similar overall performance to one another. Revised Midnight protocol recovered >=90% complete genomes for 85.9% (61/71) of Omicron samples vs. 88.7% (63/71) for ARTIC v4.1. Approximate cost per sample for Midnight (12GBP) is lower than ARTIC (16GBP) while hands-on time is considerably lower for Midnight (~7 hours) than ARTIC protocols (~9.5 hours).

2021 ◽  
Karen Zhang ◽  
Yuan-Jyue Chen ◽  
Kathryn Doroschak ◽  
Karin Strauss ◽  
Luis Ceze ◽  

DNA has emerged as a powerful substrate for programming information processing machines at the nanoscale. Among the DNA computing primitives used today, DNA strand displacement (DSD) is arguably the most popular, with DSD-based circuit applications ranging from disease diagnostics to molecular artificial neural networks. The outputs of DSD circuits are generally read using fluorescence spectroscopy. However, due to the spectral overlap of typical small-molecule fluorescent reporters, the number of unique outputs that can be detected in parallel is limited, requiring complex optical setups or spatial isolation of reactions to make output bandwidths scalable. Here, we present a multiplexable sequencing-free readout method that enables real-time, kinetic measurement of DSD circuit activity through highly parallel, direct detection of barcoded output strands using nanopore sensor array technology (Oxford Nanopore Technologies' MinION device). We show that engineered reporter probes can be detected and classified with high accuracy at the single-molecule level directly from raw nanopore signals using deep learning. We then demonstrate this method's utility in multiplexed detection of clinically relevant microRNA sequences. These results increase DSD output bandwidth by an order of magnitude over what is possible with fluorescence spectroscopy, laying the foundations for a new paradigm in DNA circuit readout and programmable multiplexed molecular diagnostics using portable nanopore devices.

2021 ◽  
Somesh Kumar ◽  
Avinash Lomash ◽  
Mohammed Faruq ◽  
Oves Siddiqui ◽  
Suresh Kumar ◽  

SARS-CoV-2 infection has been playing havoc with emerging omicron variants of concern (VoC). Here, we report sequencing of the omicron variant in 13 patients from India using Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT) Minion, wherein a rapid amplicon based sequence analysis was performed to assess and compare with existing 34 mutations in spike glycoprotein. We highlight and discuss the nature of these mutations that are unique and common to other populations. This is perhaps the first report on omicron variants from India using a long read sequencing chemistry.

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