Abstract Persea lingue Ness is a tree species that lives mainly in temperate forests of south-central Chile. Its leaves are used in ethnomedicine, the fruit is a drupe similar to that of the avocado and has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity in leukemia cell and antibacterial activity, along with some chemical content characteristics of P. lingue fruit and leaf extracts. The antibacterial activity was determined by the inhibition of bacterial growth in liquid medium assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The leukemia cell lines Kasumi-1 and Jurkat were used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity by using propidium iodide and AlamarBlue assays. Total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin, alkaloid and lipid contents were evaluated in the fruit and in the leaf extracts. The antioxidant activity of both extracts were also elavaluated. Leaf extract presented the highest content of total phenols, condensed tannins and flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant activity. While the fruit extract has a higher amount of lipids and alkaloids and the high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium and Micrococcus luteus. The leaf extract only showed activity against M. luteus. Concerning the cytotoxic activity, only the fruit extract showed cytotoxicity against the cell lines Jurkat and Kasumi-1. P. lingue fruit extract is a potential source of biologically active molecules for the development of new drugs to be used in some types of leukemia, as well as antibacterial agent.
Thrombin stimulates platelets via a dual receptor system of protease-activated receptors (PARs): PAR1 and PAR4. PAR1 activation induces a rapid and transient signal associated with the initiation of platelet aggregation, whereas PAR4 activation results in a prolonged signal, required for later phases, that regulates the stable formation of thrombus. In this study, we observed differential signaling pathways for thrombin-induced PAR1 and PAR4 activation in a human megakaryoblastic leukemia cell line, MEG-01. Interestingly, thrombin induced both calcium signaling and morphological changes in MEG-01 cells via the activation of PAR1 and PAR4, and these intracellular events were very similar to those observed in platelets shown in previous studies. We developed a novel image-based assay to quantitatively measure the morphological changes in living cells, and observed the underlying mechanism for PAR1- and PAR4-mediated morphological changes in MEG-01 cells. Selective inhibition of PAR1 and PAR4 by vorapaxar and BMS-986120, respectively, showed that thrombin-induced morphological changes were primarily mediated by PAR4 activation. Treatment of a set of kinase inhibitors and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) revealed that thrombin-mediated morphological changes were primarily regulated by calcium-independent pathways and PAR4 activation-induced PI3K/Akt and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathways in MEG-01 cells. These results indicate the importance of PAR4-mediated signaling pathways in thrombin-induced morphological changes in MEG-01 cells and provide a useful in vitro cellular model for platelet research.
AbstractRepurposing of drugs for new therapeutic use has received considerable attention for its potential to limit time and cost of drug development. Here we present a new strategy to identify chemicals that are likely to promote a desired phenotype. We used data from the Connectivity Map (CMap) to produce a ranked list of drugs according to their potential to activate transcription factors that mediate myeloid differentiation of leukemic progenitor cells. To validate our strategy, we tested the in vitro differentiation potential of candidate compounds using the HL-60 human cell line as a myeloid differentiation model. Ten out of 22 compounds, which were ranked high in the inferred list, were confirmed to promote significant differentiation of HL-60. These compounds may be considered candidate for differentiation therapy. The method that we have developed is versatile and it can be adapted to different drug repurposing projects.
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are two common malignant disorders in leukemia. Although potent drugs are emerging, CML and AML may still relapse after the drug treatment is stopped. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) and lncRNAs play certain roles in the occurrence and development of tumors, but m6A-modified LncRNAs in ML remain to be further investigated.
In this study, we extracted and analyzed the TCGA gene expression profile of 151 ML patients and the clinical data. On this basis, we then evaluated the immune infiltration capacity of ML and LASSO-penalized Cox analysis was applied to construct the prognostic model based on m6A related lncRNAs to verify the prognostic risk in clinical features of ML. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to detect the expression level of LncRNA in in ML cell lines K562, MOLM13 and acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1.
We found 70 m6A-related lncRNAs that were related to prognosis, and speculated that the content of stromal cells and immune cells would correlate with the survival of patients with ML. Next, Prognostic risk model of m6A-related lncRNAs was validated to have excellent consistency in clinical features of ML. Finally, we verified the expression levels of CRNDE, CHROMR and NARF-IT1 in ML cell lines K562, MOLM13 and acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1, which were significant.
The research provides clues for the prognosis prediction of ML patients by using the m6A-related lncRNAs model we have created, and clarifies the accuracy and authenticity of it.
Structural changes of small-molecule drugs may bring interesting biological properties, especially in the field of kinase inhibitors. We sought to study tirbanibulin, a first-in-class dual Src kinase (non-ATP competitive)/tubulin inhibitor because there was not enough reporting about its structure–activity relationships (SARs). In particular, the present research is based on the replacement of the outer ring of the biphenyl system of 2-[(1,1′-biphenyl)-4-yl]-N-benzylacetamide, the identified pharmacophore of KX chemotype, with a heterocyclic ring. The newly synthesized compounds showed a range of activities in cell-based anticancer assays, agreeing with a clear SAR profile. The most potent compound, (Z)-N-benzyl-4-[4-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-2-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-1-yl]phenylacetamide (KIM-161), demonstrated cytotoxic IC50 values at 294 and 362 nM against HCT116 colon cancer and HL60 leukemia cell lines, respectively. Profiling of this compound (aqueous solubility, liver microsomal stability, cytochrome P450 inhibition, reactivity with reduced glutathione, and plasma protein binding) confirmed its adequate drug-like properties. Mechanistic studies revealed that this compound does not depend on tubulin or Src kinase inhibition as a factor in forcing HL60 to exit its cell cycle and undergo apoptosis. Instead, KIM-161 downregulated several other kinases such as members of BRK, FLT, and JAK families. It also strongly suppresses signals of ERK1/2, GSK-3α/β, HSP27, and STAT2, while it downregulated AMPKα1 phosphorylation within the HL60 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that phenylacetamide-1H-imidazol-5-one (KIM-161) could be a promising lead compound for further clinical anticancer drug development.
Leukemia transformed by the CALM-AF10 chromosomal translocation is characterized by a high incidence of extramedullary disease, central nervous system (CNS) relapse, and a poor prognosis. Invasion of the extramedullary compartment and CNS requires leukemia cell migration out of the marrow and adherence to the cells of the local tissue. Cell adhesion and migration are increasingly recognized as contributors to leukemia development and therapeutic response. These processes are mediated by a variety of cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors, forming networks of both secreted and cell surface factors. The cytokines and cytokine receptors that play key roles in CALM-AF10 driven leukemia are unknown. We find high cell surface expression of the cytokine receptor CXCR4 on leukemia cells expressing the CALM-AF10 oncogenic protein, contributing to the migratory nature of this leukemia. Our discovery of altered cytokine receptor expression and function provides valuable insight into the propagation and persistence of CALM-AF10 driven leukemia.
Tetracycline-3 (4-dedimethylamino sancycline, COL-3) is a non-antibiotic tetracycline derivative. COL-3 exerts potent anti-metalloproteinase activity and its antitumor effects have been reported both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of COL-3-induced cytotoxicity in a chronic myeloid leukemia cell line, K562, characterized by the BCR–ABL fusion protein. COL-3 induced K562 cell death in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 10.8 µg/mL and exhibited features of both apoptosis and necrosis. However, flow cytometry analysis revealed that necrotic cells dominated over the early and late apoptotic cells upon treatment with COL-3. Transmission electron microscopy analysis in combination with Western blotting (WB) analysis revealed early mitochondrial swelling accompanied by the early release of cytochrome c and truncated apoptosis inducing factor (tAIF). In addition, ultrastructural changes were detected in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). COL-3 affected the levels of glucose-regulated protein-94 (GRP94) and resulted in m-calpain activation. DNA double strand breaks as a signature for DNA damage was also confirmed using an antibody against γH2AX. WB analyses did not demonstrate caspase activation, while Bcl-xL protein remained unaffected. In conclusion, COL-3-induced cell death involves DNA damage as well as mitochondrial and ER perturbation with features of paraptosis and programmed necrosis.
We recently screened a series of new aziridines β-D-galactopyranoside derivatives for selective anticancer activity and identified 2-methyl-2,3-[N-(4-methylbenzenesulfonyl)imino]propyl 2,3-di-O-benzyl-4,6-O-(S)-benzylidene-β-D-galactopyranoside (AzGalp) as the most promising compound. In this article, we explore the possible mechanisms involved in the cytotoxicity of this aziridine and evaluate its selective anticancer activity using cancer cells and normal cells from a variety of tissues. Our data show that AzGalp induces DNA damage (comet assay). Cells deficient in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway were hypersensitive to the cytotoxicity of this compound. These results suggest that AzGalp induces bulky DNA adducts, and that cancer cells lacking a functional NER pathway may be particularly vulnerable to the anticancer effects of this aziridine. Several experiments revealed that neither the generation of oxidative stress nor the inhibition of glycolysis played a significant role in the cytotoxicity of AzGalp. Combinations of AzGalp with oxaliplatin or 5-fluorouracil slightly improved the ability of both anticancer drugs to selectively kill cancer cells. AzGalp also showed selective cytotoxicity against a panel of malignant cells versus normal cells; the highest selectivity was observed for two acute promyelocytic leukemia cell lines. Additional preclinical studies are necessary to evaluate the anticancer potential of AzGalp.