cell envelope
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2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 453-459
Author(s):  
Liang-Bin Xiong ◽  
Hao-Hao Liu ◽  
Lu Song ◽  
Miao-Miao Dong ◽  
Jie Ke ◽  
...  
Keyword(s):  

Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 139
Author(s):  
Lisa Solieri ◽  
Laura Sola ◽  
Amanda Vaccalluzzo ◽  
Cinzia Randazzo ◽  
Serena Martini ◽  
...  

In the present work, two cell-envelope proteinases (CEPs) from Lacticaseibacillus casei strains PRA205 and 2006 were characterized at both the biochemical and genetic levels. The genomes of both L. casei strains included two putative CEPs genes prtP2 and prtR1, but only prtR1 was transcribed. The extracted PrtR1 proteinases were serine proteinases with optimal activity at 40 °C and pH 7.5, and were activated by Ca2+ ions. Interestingly, PrtR1 from L. casei PRA205 exhibited high residual activity at pH 4 and at 5 °C, suggesting its possible exploitation for fermented food production. The caseinolytic activity against αS1- and β-casein indicated that both PrtR1s belonged to the PI/PIII type. These PrtR1s cleaved β-casein peptide bonds preferentially when amino acid M or N was present at the P1 subsite and amino acids A and D were at the P1′ subsite. Several bioactive peptides were found to be released from PrtR1 after αs1- and β-casein hydrolysis.


eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
R Christopher D Furniss ◽  
Nikol Kaderabkova ◽  
Declan Barker ◽  
Patricia Bernal ◽  
Evgenia Maslova ◽  
...  

Antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is one of the greatest threats to global health. New antibacterial strategies are urgently needed, and the development of antibiotic adjuvants that either neutralize resistance proteins or compromise the integrity of the cell envelope is of ever-growing interest. Most available adjuvants are only effective against specific resistance proteins. Here we demonstrate that disruption of cell envelope protein homeostasis simultaneously compromises several classes of resistance determinants. In particular, we find that impairing DsbA-mediated disulfide bond formation incapacitates diverse β-lactamases and destabilizes mobile colistin resistance enzymes. Furthermore, we show that chemical inhibition of DsbA sensitizes multidrug-resistant clinical isolates to existing antibiotics and that the absence of DsbA, in combination with antibiotic treatment, substantially increases the survival of Galleria mellonella larvae infected with multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This work lays the foundation for the development of novel antibiotic adjuvants that function as broad-acting resistance breakers.


eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
R Christopher D Furniss ◽  
Nikol Kaderabkova ◽  
Declan Barker ◽  
Patricia Bernal ◽  
Evgenia Maslova ◽  
...  

Antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is one of the greatest threats to global health. New antibacterial strategies are urgently needed, and the development of antibiotic adjuvants that either neutralize resistance proteins or compromise the integrity of the cell envelope is of ever-growing interest. Most available adjuvants are only effective against specific resistance proteins. Here we demonstrate that disruption of cell envelope protein homeostasis simultaneously compromises several classes of resistance determinants. In particular, we find that impairing DsbA-mediated disulfide bond formation incapacitates diverse β-lactamases and destabilizes mobile colistin resistance enzymes. Furthermore, we show that chemical inhibition of DsbA sensitizes multidrug-resistant clinical isolates to existing antibiotics and that the absence of DsbA, in combination with antibiotic treatment, substantially increases the survival of Galleria mellonella larvae infected with multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This work lays the foundation for the development of novel antibiotic adjuvants that function as broad-acting resistance breakers.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Daniel William Watkins ◽  
Ian Collinson

As the first line of defence against antibiotics, the Gram-negative bacterial envelope and its biogenesis are of considerable interest to the microbiological and biomedical communities. All bacterial proteins are synthesised in the cytosol, so inner- and outer-membrane proteins, and periplasmic residents have to be transported to their final destinations via specialised protein machinery. The Sec translocon, a ubiquitous integral inner-membrane (IM) complex, is key to this process as the major gateway for protein transit from the cytosol to the cell envelope; this can be achieved during their translation, or afterwards. Proteins need to be directed to the inner-membrane (usually co-translational), otherwise SecA utilises ATP and the proton-motive-force (PMF) to drive proteins across the membrane post-translationally. These proteins are then picked up by chaperones for folding in the periplasm or delivered to the β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM) for incorporation into the outer-membrane. The core heterotrimeric SecYEG-complex forms the hub for an extensive network of interactions that regulate protein delivery and quality control. Here, we conduct a biochemical exploration of this secretosome: a very large, versatile and inter-changeable assembly with the Sec-translocon at its core; featuring interactions that facilitate secretion (SecDF), inner- and outer-membrane protein insertion (respectively, YidC and BAM), protein folding and quality control (e.g. PpiD, YfgM and FtsH). We propose the dynamic interplay amongst these and other factors act to ensure efficient whole envelope biogenesis, regulated to accommodate the requirements of cell elongation and division. This organisation would be essential for cell wall biogenesis and remodelling and thus its perturbation would be a good strategy for the development of anti-microbials.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Giuseppina Mariano ◽  
Raquel Faba-Rodriguez ◽  
Soi Bui ◽  
Weilong Zhao ◽  
James Ross ◽  
...  

The bacterial flagellum is a complex, self-assembling macromolecular machine that powers bacterial motility. It plays diverse roles in bacterial virulence, including aiding in colonization and dissemination during infection. The flagellum consists of a filamentous structure protruding from the cell, and of the basal body, a large assembly that spans the cell envelope. The basal body is comprised of over 20 different proteins forming several concentric ring structures, termed the M- S- L- P- and C-rings, respectively. In particular, the MS rings are formed by a single protein FliF, which consists of two trans-membrane helices anchoring it to the inner membrane and surrounding a large periplasmic domain. Assembly of the MS ring, through oligomerization of FliF, is one of the first steps of basal body assembly. Previous computational analysis had shown that the periplasmic region of FliF consists of three structurally similar domains, termed Ring-Building Motif (RBM)1, RBM2, and RBM3. The structure of the MS-ring has been reported recently, and unexpectedly shown that these three domains adopt different symmetries, with RBM3 having a 34-mer stoichiometry, while RBM2 adopts two distinct positions in the complex, including a 23-mer ring. This observation raises some important question on the assembly of the MS ring, and the formation of this symmetry mismatch within a single protein. In this study, we analyze the oligomerization of the individual RBM domains in isolation, in the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium FliF ortholog. We demonstrate that the periplasmic domain of FliF assembles into the MS ring, in the absence of the trans-membrane helices. We also report that the RBM2 and RBM3 domains oligomerize into ring structures, but not RBM1. Intriguingly, we observe that a construct encompassing RBM1 and RBM2 is monomeric, suggesting that RBM1 interacts with RBM2, and inhibits its oligomerization. However, this inhibition is lifted by the addition of RBM3. Collectively, this data suggest a mechanism for the controlled assembly of the MS ring.


2022 ◽  
Vol 71 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Isaac B. Olivar-Casique ◽  
Liliana Medina-Aparicio ◽  
Selena Mayo ◽  
Yitzel Gama-Martínez ◽  
Javier E. Rebollar-Flores ◽  
...  

Introduction. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is the etiological agent of typhoid fever. To establish an infection in the human host, this pathogen must survive the presence of bile salts in the gut and gallbladder. Hypothesis. S. Typhi uses multiple genetic elements to resist the presence of human bile. Aims. To determine the genetic elements that S. Typhi utilizes to tolerate the human bile salt sodium deoxycholate. Methodology. A collection of S. Typhi mutant strains was evaluated for their ability to growth in the presence of sodium deoxycholate and ox-bile. Additionally, transcriptomic and proteomic responses elicited by sodium deoxycholate on S. Typhi cultures were also analysed. Results. Multiple transcriptional factors and some of their dependent genes involved in central metabolism, as well as in cell envelope, are required for deoxycholate resistance. Conclusion. These findings suggest that metabolic adaptation to bile is focused on enhancing energy production to sustain synthesis of cell envelope components exposed to damage by bile salts.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Michael G. Wuo ◽  
Charles L Dulberger ◽  
Robert A. Brown ◽  
Alexander Sturm ◽  
Eveline Ultee ◽  
...  

The current understanding of mycobacterial cell envelope remodeling in response to antibiotics is limited. Chemical tools that report on phenotypic changes with minimal cell wall perturbation are critical to gaining insight into this time-dependent phenomenon. Herein we describe a fluorogenic chemical probe that reports on mycobacterial cell envelope assembly in real time. We used time-lapse microscopy to reveal distinct spatial and temporal changes in the mycobacterial membrane upon treatment with frontline antibiotics. Differential antibiotic treatment elicited unique cellular phenotypes, providing a platform for monitoring cell envelope construction and remodeling responses simultaneously. Analysis of the imaging data indicates a role for antibiotic-derived outer membrane vesicles in immune modulation.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Bogi Trickovic ◽  
Michael Lynch

Although various empirical studies have reported a positive correlation between the specific growth rate and cell size across bacteria, it is currently unclear what causes this relationship. We conjecture that such scaling occurs because smaller cells have a larger surface-to-volume ratio and thus have to allocate a greater fraction of the total resources to the production of the cell envelope, leaving fewer resources for other biosynthetic processes. To test this theory, we developed a coarse-grained model of bacterial physiology composed of the proteome that converts nutrients into biomass, with the cell envelope acting as a resource sink. Assuming resources are partitioned to maximize the growth rate, the model yields expected scalings. Namely, the growth rate and ribosomal mass fraction scale negatively, while the mass fraction of envelope-producing enzymes scales positively with surface-to-volume. These relationships are compatible with growth measurements and quantitative proteomics data reported in the literature.


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