immune modulation
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 16 ◽  
pp. 101312
Geetha Shanmugam ◽  
Sudeshna Rakshit ◽  
Koustav Sarkar

Xinjie Wu ◽  
Wei Sun

Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is the leading cause of low back pain related to degradation of cartilaginous tissues, mainly resulting from oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, and extracellular matrix degradation. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) exist in all bodily fluids and can be produced by all types of cells. Stem cell-derived EVs (SC-EVs), which are the main paracrine components of stem cells, have gained significant attention in the field of regenerative medicine. Over the past years, accumulating evidence indicates the therapeutic and diagnostic potentials of EVs in IVDD. The main mechanisms involve the induction of regenerative phenotypes, apoptosis alleviation, and immune modulation. In addition, the efficiency of SC-EVs can be enhanced by choosing appropriate donor cells and cell phenotypes, optimizing cell culture conditions, or engineering EVs to deliver drugs and targeting molecules. Given the importance and novelty of SC-EVs, we give an overview of SC-EVs and discuss the roles of SC-EVs in IVDD.

2022 ◽  
Xun Zhu ◽  
Xiaorong Liu ◽  
Yehui Zhou ◽  
Chenglin Qin

Abstract Background Worldwide, Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females. Endocrine therapy can effectively treat 85% of breast cancer patients, but 15% of patients could only be treated with chemotherapy and surgery, and the prognosis is much worse. Immunotherapy is the novel treatment for breast cancer that PD-1 and CTLA-4 antibodies have shown evidence of immune modulation in breast cancer drug trials. Methods and Result In this study, we report that TNFRSF9 regulates the cell proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis of breast cancer cells through regulating the phosphorylation of p38, thus further regulate the expression of PAX6. In both breast cancer tissues and cell lines, the levels of TNFRSF9 are significantly decreased, and breast cancer cell development will be promoted with knockdown of TNFRSF9. Moreover, we identify that downregulation of TNFRSF9 can upregulate the phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) and PAX6. We further elucidate that p-p38 is essential for PAX6 expression that p38 phosphorylation inhibitor can reverse the upregulation of PAX6 and suppress cell proliferation, invasion, and promote apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Conclusions In summary, this study proposed a novel TNFRSF9/p38/PAX6 axis that contributes to tumor suppression, which suggests a potential immunotherapy target for breast cancer.

Ritopa Das ◽  
Sofia Langou ◽  
Thinh T. Le ◽  
Pooja Prasad ◽  
Feng Lin ◽  

Immunotherapy is becoming a very common treatment for cancer, using approaches like checkpoint inhibition, T cell transfer therapy, monoclonal antibodies and cancer vaccination. However, these approaches involve high doses of immune therapeutics with problematic side effects. A promising approach to reducing the dose of immunotherapeutic agents given to a cancer patient is to combine it with electrical stimulation, which can act in two ways; it can either modulate the immune system to produce the immune cytokines and agents in the patient’s body or it can increase the cellular uptake of these immune agents via electroporation. Electrical stimulation in form of direct current has been shown to reduce tumor sizes in immune-competent mice while having no effect on tumor sizes in immune-deficient mice. Several studies have used nano-pulsed electrical stimulations to activate the immune system and drive it against tumor cells. This approach has been utilized for different types of cancers, like fibrosarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, human papillomavirus etc. Another common approach is to combine electrochemotherapy with immune modulation, either by inducing immunogenic cell death or injecting immunostimulants that increase the effectiveness of the treatments. Several therapies utilize electroporation to deliver immunostimulants (like genes encoded with cytokine producing sequences, cancer specific antigens or fragments of anti-tumor toxins) more effectively. Lastly, electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve can trigger production and activation of anti-tumor immune cells and immune reactions. Hence, the use of electrical stimulation to modulate the immune system in different ways can be a promising approach to treat cancer.

BMC Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
San-Chi Chen ◽  
Yi-Hsiang Huang ◽  
Ming-Huang Chen ◽  
Yi-Ping Hung ◽  
Rheun-Chuan Lee ◽  

Abstract Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a role in the tumor microenvironment. Sorafenib, which inhibits the VEGF pathway, has an immune-modulation function but lacks substantial clinical data. This study aims to explore the efficacy of anti-PD-1 combined sorafenib in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods HCC patients who underwent anti-PD-1 treatment at Taipei Veterans General Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan) between January 2016 and February 2019 were reviewed. The efficacy was compared between groups after propensity-score matching. Results There were 173 HCC patients receiving anti-PD-1. After excluding unsuitable cases, 140 patients were analyzed, of which 58 received combination therapy and 82 received anti-PD-1 alone. The combination therapy had a trend of higher CR rate (8.6% vs. 4.9%, ns.), ORR (22.4% vs. 19.5%, ns.) and significantly higher DCR (69.0% vs. 37.8%, p < 0.05) comparing to anti-PD-1 alone. After matching, combination group achieved longer progression-free survival (3.87 vs. 2.43 months, p < 0.05) and overall survival (not reached vs. 7.17 months, p < 0.05) than anti-PD-1 alone, without higher grade 3/4 AE (10.3% vs. 7.1%, p = 0.73). The tumor response varied among different metastatic sites, with high responses in adrenal glands, peritoneum and lungs. The more AFP declined (> 10, > 50 and > 66%), the higher the ORR (70, 80 and 92%) and CR rates (30, 35 and 58%) were achieved at day 28. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate the combination of anti-PD-1 and sorafenib had better efficacy and survival benefit. A prospective randomized study is needed to confirm this finding.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Abimbola O. Aro ◽  
Ibukun M. Famuyide ◽  
Ademola A. Oyagbemi ◽  
Prudence N. Kabongo-Kayoka ◽  
Lyndy J. McGaw

Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease of global importance that affects millions of people. Approximately a quarter of the world’s population is currently infected with M. tuberculosis, and about 10% of those infected will develop into active disease, particularly immune compromised individuals. Helminthiasis is of global health importance, affecting over 2 billion people mostly in resource-poor countries. Co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) and helminths (worms) is an emerging global public health concern with both affecting about one-third of the global population. Chronic infection with helminths can result in impaired immune responses to TB as well as enhancing failure to TB therapy and BCG vaccination. Antimycobacterial and anthelmintic activities of the acetone extract and fractions of Psychotria capensis were evaluated, including their in vitro safety. In addition, the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect of the fractions and crude extract of P. capensis were assessed. Antimycobacterial activity of the extract and fractions was tested against four non-tuberculous mycobacteria (Mycobacterium smegmatis, M. fortuitum, M. aurum, M. bovis BCG) and pathogenic M. tuberculosis H37Rv while the Egg Hatch Assay (EHA) was used for the anthelmintic test on eggs of Haemonchus contortus. Cytotoxicity was determined against Vero kidney cells while in vitro immune modulation via cytokine production was determined on activated macrophages. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the Psychotria capensis acetone extract and fractions ranged from 39 to 1,250 μg/ml with the crude extract and hexane fraction having the best MIC values (both 39 μg/ml). In the EHA, the inhibitory concentration (IC50) ranged from 160 to 630 μg/ml with the hexane fraction having the best activity. The hexane and chloroform fractions were relatively non-toxic with LC50 values of 290 and 248 μg/ml respectively, while the acetone crude extract (64 μg/ml) and n-butanol fraction (71 μg/ml) were moderately toxic. The SI values (LC50/MIC) ranged from 0.1 to 7.4 with the hexane fraction having the highest value against M. smegmatis (7.4). The hexane fraction had the best dual anthelmintic and antimycobacterial activity. This fraction had the best NO inhibitory activity and was the least cytotoxic, indicating that its activity was not due to general metabolic toxicity, with 96.54% cell viability. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-12p70 were upregulated while IL-10 expression was inhibited by the extracts. Compounds were detected using GC-MS analysis, and in both the crude acetone extract and the hexane fraction was the diterpene neophytadiene, which has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity. Finding alternative or complementary approaches to dealing with TB infections by, amongst other things, reducing the incidence of helminth infestations may lessen the burden of TB, contributing to slowing the spread of multi-drug resistance.

2022 ◽  
Michael G. Wuo ◽  
Charles L Dulberger ◽  
Robert A. Brown ◽  
Alexander Sturm ◽  
Eveline Ultee ◽  

The current understanding of mycobacterial cell envelope remodeling in response to antibiotics is limited. Chemical tools that report on phenotypic changes with minimal cell wall perturbation are critical to gaining insight into this time-dependent phenomenon. Herein we describe a fluorogenic chemical probe that reports on mycobacterial cell envelope assembly in real time. We used time-lapse microscopy to reveal distinct spatial and temporal changes in the mycobacterial membrane upon treatment with frontline antibiotics. Differential antibiotic treatment elicited unique cellular phenotypes, providing a platform for monitoring cell envelope construction and remodeling responses simultaneously. Analysis of the imaging data indicates a role for antibiotic-derived outer membrane vesicles in immune modulation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Chaoyuan Kuang ◽  
Yongseok Park ◽  
Ryan C. Augustin ◽  
Yan Lin ◽  
Douglas J. Hartman ◽  

Abstract Background DNA mismatch repair proficient (pMMR) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is not responsive to pembrolizumab monotherapy. DNA methyltransferase inhibitors can promote antitumor immune responses. This clinical trial investigated whether concurrent treatment with azacitidine enhances the antitumor activity of pembrolizumab in mCRC. Methods We conducted a phase 2 single-arm trial evaluating activity and tolerability of pembrolizumab plus azacitidine in patients with chemotherapy-refractory mCRC (NCT02260440). Patients received pembrolizumab 200 mg IV on day 1 and azacitidine 100 mg SQ on days 1–5, every 3 weeks. A low fixed dose of azacitidine was chosen in order to reduce the possibility of a direct cytotoxic effect of the drug, since the main focus of this study was to investigate its potential immunomodulatory effect. The primary endpoint of this study was overall response rate (ORR) using RECIST v1.1., and secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Tumor tissue was collected pre- and on-treatment for correlative studies. Results Thirty chemotherapy-refractory patients received a median of three cycles of therapy. One patient achieved partial response (PR), and one patient had stable disease (SD) as best confirmed response. The ORR was 3%, median PFS was 1.9 months, and median OS was 6.3 months. The combination regimen was well-tolerated, and 96% of treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) were grade 1/2. This trial was terminated prior to the accrual target of 40 patients due to lack of clinical efficacy. DNA methylation on-treatment as compared to pre-treatment decreased genome wide in 10 of 15 patients with paired biopsies and was significantly lower in gene promoter regions after treatment. These promoter demethylated genes represented a higher proportion of upregulated genes, including several immune gene sets, endogenous retroviral elements, and cancer-testis antigens. CD8+ TIL density trended higher on-treatment compared to pre-treatment. Higher CD8+ TIL density at baseline was associated with greater likelihood of benefit from treatment. On-treatment tumor demethylation correlated with the increases in tumor CD8+ TIL density. Conclusions The combination of pembrolizumab and azacitidine is safe and tolerable with modest clinical activity in the treatment for chemotherapy-refractory mCRC. Correlative studies suggest that tumor DNA demethylation and immunomodulation occurs. An association between tumor DNA demethylation and tumor-immune modulation suggests immune modulation and may result from treatment with azacitidine. Trial registration, NCT02260440. Registered 9 October 2014,

Rebecca Thomas ◽  
Jenny Dunn ◽  
Deborah Dawson ◽  
Helen Hipperson ◽  
Gavin Horsburgh ◽  

Understanding the frequency, spatiotemporal dynamics and impacts of parasite coinfections is fundamental to developing control measures and predicting disease impacts. The European turtle dove (Streptopelia turtur) is one of Europe’s most threatened bird species. High prevalence of infection by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae has previously been identified, but the role of this and other coinfecting parasites in turtle dove declines remains unclear. Using a high-throughput sequencing approach, we identified seven strains of T. gallinae, including two novel strains, from ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 ribosomal sequences in turtle doves on breeding and wintering grounds, with further intra-strain variation and four novel sub-types revealed by the iron-hydrogenase gene. High spatiotemporal turnover was observed in T. gallinae strain composition, and infection was prevalent in all populations (89–100%). Coinfection by multiple Trichomonas strains was rarer than expected (1% observed compared to 38.6% expected), suggesting either within-host competition, or high mortality of coinfected individuals. In contrast, coinfection by multiple haemosporidians was common (43%), as was coinfection by haemosporidians and T. gallinae (90%), with positive associations between strains of T. gallinae and Leucocytozoon suggesting a mechanism such as parasite-induced immune modulation. We found no evidence for negative associations between coinfections and host body condition. We suggest that longitudinal studies involving the recapture and investigation of infection status of individuals over their lifespan are crucial to understand the epidemiology of coinfections in natural populations.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document