Salmonella Typhi
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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kesia da Silva ◽  
Arif M Tanmoy ◽  
Agila K Pragasam ◽  
Junaid Iqbal ◽  
Mohammad Saiful Islam Sajib ◽  
...  

The emergence of increasingly antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) threatens to undermine effective treatment and control. Here, aiming to investigate the temporal and geographic patterns of emergence and spread of AMR S. Typhi, we sequenced 3,489 S. Typhi isolated from prospective surveillance in South Asia and combined these with a global collection of 4,169 S. Typhi genomes. Our analysis revealed that independent acquisition of plasmids and homoplastic mutations conferring AMR have occurred repeatedly in multiple lineages of S. Typhi, predominantly arising in South Asia. We found evidence of frequent international and intercontinental transfers of AMR S. Typhi, followed by rapid expansion and replacement of antimicrobial-susceptible clades.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Saba Shahid ◽  
Marvi Mahesar ◽  
Nida Ghouri ◽  
Saba Noreen

Abstract Background Enteric fever is a systemic infection caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, B, and C. There is an emergence of Typhoid fever caused by extensively drug-resistant Salmonella Typhi strain called XDR S.Typhi. This strain is resistant to recommended first-line antibiotics and cephalosporins. WHO estimated 5274 cases of XDR S.Typhi in Karachi from November 2016 to December 2019. This study aims to determine clinical course, complications and response to treatment of XDR S.Typhi among the pediatric population coming to Indus Hospital. Method We reviewed the records of children who had culture-proven XDR S.Typhi infection at Indus Hospital from July 2017 to December 2018. A pre-designed data abstraction form was used to record information about seasonality, demographic details, clinical features and course, treatment, complications and outcomes of the cases of XDR S.Typhi. Results The records of 680 children were reviewed. The median (IQR) age of the patients was 5 (2–8) years. More than half (n = 391, 57.5%) of the patients were males. The outcomes were recorded in 270 (40%) patients. Out of these, 234 (86.7%) children got cured within 14 days, while a delayed response to antibiotics was noted in 32 (11.9%) children. Seventy-six (29%) children recovered on a combination of meropenem and azithromycin, 72 (27%) got cured on azithromycin alone, while 15 (6%) responded to meropenem alone. Conclusion Our review indicated that children under 5 years of age were affected more with XDR S.Typhi. Azithromycin alone or in combination with meropenem were effective antibiotics for treating XDR S.Typhi in children.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
ARUN KUMAR MALAISAMY ◽  
Mahalakshmi Murugan ◽  
Ashok Kumar Vairamuthu ◽  
Manikka Kubendran Aravind ◽  
Sathaiah Gunaseelan ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: Salmonella belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family, a gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, motile, and pathogenic bacteria that transmit through unhygienic conditions. It is estimated that 21 million new infections arise every year, resulting in approximately 200,000 deaths. It is more prevalent among children, the old aged, and immunocompromised individuals. The frequent usage of classical antimicrobials has begun the increasing emergence of various drug-resistant pathogenic bacterial strains. Hence, this study was intended to evaluate the bioactive seaweed sulfated polysaccharides (SSP) against the ompF (outer membrane porin F) protein target of Salmonella typhi. SSP are sulfated compounds with a wide range of biological activities, such as anti-microbial, anti-allergy, anti-cancer, anti-coagulant, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant, and anti-viral. Results: In this study, eleven compounds were targeted against S. typhi OmpF by molecular docking approach and were compared with two commercially available typhoid medications. The SSP showed good binding affinity compared to commercial drugs, particularly carrageenan/MIV-150, carrageenan lambda, fucoidan, and 3-Phenyllactate, ranked as top antagonists against OmpF. Further, pharmacokinetics and toxicology (ADMET) studies corroborated that SSP possessed drug-likeness and highly progressed in all parameters.Conclusion: AutoDockTools and Schrodinger's QikProp module results suggest that SSP could be a promising drug for extensively drug-resistant (XDR) S. typhi. To our best of knowledge, this is the first report on in-silico analysis of SSP against S. typhi OmpF. Thus, implying the capabilities of SSP's especially compounds like carrageenans, as a potential anti-microbial agent against Salmonella typhi infections. Eventually, advanced studies could corroborate SSPs to the next level of application in the crisis of XDR microbial diseases.


2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 25-36
Author(s):  
Seyi Samson Enitan ◽  
Joan Odigie ◽  
Oluyemisi Ajike Adekunbi ◽  
Okondu Ogechukwu Emmanuel ◽  
Nwachi Idume Ogbonna ◽  
...  

This cross-sectional, institutional-based study aimed to determine the prevalence of shigellosis and associated risk factors among Babcock University students in Ogun State, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty (120) undergraduate students, 80 females and 40 males, were asked to provide stool specimen in a sterile leak-proof single-use universal bottle with a screw-capped lid. Standard microbiological techniques were used to analyse the stool samples. A questionnaire was designed to collect demographic and clinical information from participants. The data obtained were statistically analysed using the SPSS Statistics software (version 18.0). The study showed that there was no occurrence of shigellosis among the study participants (0%), but other enteric pathogens infection were present in all participants (100%). The three most common mono-infections found among the study participants included Staphylococcus aureus (40%), followed by Escherichia coli (16.7%), and Salmonella typhi and Bacillus spp. (3.3%, each). While the most common prevalence of dual-infections included Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (33.3%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi (3.3%). The proportion of participants who were asymptomatic (66.7%) was significantly higher than the symptomatic ones (33.3%). Identified risk factors of non-Shigella enteric infection included consumption of beef, vegetables, fruits, poultry/poultry products, as well as street foods, poor hand hygiene before eating, anal cleaning, and poor hand hygiene after toileting. Although shigellosis did not exist among undergraduate students of Babcock University, this study highlighted the existence of other enteric infections among the study participants. Therefore, the necessary preventive measures should be ensured and sustained.


2021 ◽  
Vol 50 (Supplement_1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Eunice Baiden Laryea ◽  
Charles Gyamfi Gyimah

Abstract Background On 6th June 2019, Afigya Kwabre North District Health Administration reported suspected foodborne illness involving primary school pupils at Boamang Kyerekrom D/A Primary School. Investigation was done to identify risk factors and implement control and preventive measures. Methods We conducted active case search and a retrospective cohort study. A case was a person from Boamang presenting with fever, diarrhea, or/and vomiting from 29th May to 7th June, 2019. Data was collected using questionnaires and review of health records. Environmental assessment was done. Stool sample of the last reported case and saltpeter used to prepare okro by food vendor was sent to the laboratory for investigation. All other diarrheal cases had being given antibiotics upon our arrival. Risk ratio was estimated to determine food with highest risk of causing illness. Results Of 312 people interviewed, 96 pupils were affected (AR = 30.8%). Common symptoms were fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pains and bloody diarrhea. There was no fatality. All cases were found to have eaten from a kenkey seller on the school premises. Risk ratio was highest (6.7) among those who took okro with the kenkey. Salmonella typhi was isolated in the stool of the last reported case. Cases were distributed across four (4) neighboring communities in Boamang. Conclusions Salmonella typhi was identified in the stool and the saltpeter. We recommend training of health staff on Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR). Key messages Foodborne illness outbreak


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Parackrama Karunathilake ◽  
Thilak Jayalath ◽  
Shamali Abeygunawardena ◽  
Udaya Ralapanawa

Abstract Background Patients with HIV infection often develop multiple complications and comorbidities, including malignancies and opportunistic infections. The association of HIV infection with typhoid fever remains unclear, though there is a clear risk of typhoid in HIV infected persons. Therefore, the diagnosis of typhoid should be considered in HIV infected individuals, mainly when they present with severe ulcerative diarrhoea. Case Presentation A 38-year-old gentleman presented with fever with significant weight loss and anorexia for eight months. He had worked abroad in a middle east country and had recently returned to Sri Lanka. On examination, he was thinly built with a BMI of 18 kg/m2. The initial full blood count revealed lymphopenia, anaemia and thrombocytopenia. He also had mild hyponatremia. His HIV Ag/Ab combo assay became positive, and he was found to have a low CD4 count. While on antiretroviral therapy, he developed nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea while continuing the preexisting fever followed by severe dyspnoea and epigastric pain and tenderness associated with tachypnoea, tachycardia and hypotension. The urgent chest X-ray revealed gas under the diaphragm. An urgent exploratory laparotomy was done, and he was found to have distal ileal perforation with a typhoid ulcer which was histologically confirmed later. During the postoperative period, the patient developed severe pneumonia, scummed despite all the resuscitation care given. Conclusion Fever in HIV patients could be due to HIV itself, opportunistic infections or malignancies. The diagnosis of typhoid should be considered in HIV infected individuals, mainly when they present with severe ulcerative diarrhoea, constipation or bowel perforation. Salmonella typhi infection in HIV/AIDS patients may cause life-threatening complications, where the case fatality rate of typhoid significantly increase when present concurrently with HIV, and the mortality further increases with delayed diagnosis.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
pp. 108-118
Author(s):  
Aliyu A.S. ◽  
Ahmed I. ◽  
Abdulmalik I. ◽  
Shamsiyya M.S. ◽  
Usman Y.S. ◽  
...  

Due to the high prevalence of typhoid fever and the periodic nature of Salmonella infections despite the various antimicrobial agents used to treat these infections, the need to open up new strategies for antimicrobial susceptibility rather than the MIC alone arises. This study determines the time-kill curves using four different antimicrobial agents: Gentamicin, Ceftriaxone, Cloxacillin, and Ofloxacin at different concentrations of 1x, 2x, and 4x of their respective MICs. The finding of this study reveals that at 1x MIC, all the antimicrobial agents used, except for Gentamicin, show non-bactericidal activity against the isolates after eight hours of exposure. This study suggests that analyzing the time-kill curves in typhoid fever treatment will help determine the appropriate dose to treat the infection.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
pp. 157-170
Author(s):  
Roberto Guerra-González ◽  
Martha Angélica Lemus-Solorio ◽  
José Luis Rivera-Rojas ◽  
Alfonso Lemus-Solorio ◽  
América Abisay Mondragón-Herrera ◽  
...  

En este trabajo se estudió la preparación de diferentes materiales híbridos orgánicos / inorgánicos y su evaluación como bactericidas frente a Escherichia coli (E. coli) y Salmonella typhi (S. typhi). El objetivo principal de la presente investigación fue sintetizar y caracterizar materiales híbridos biocompatibles que inmovilizan moléculas con actividad antibacteriana en matrices lamelares inorgánicas basadas en dobles hidróxidos lamelares inorgánicos y evaluar su actividad antibacteriana frente a Escherichia coli (E. coli) y Salmonella typhi (S. typhi). Los materiales híbridos consisten en la asociación de un doble hidróxido laminar inorgánico, o compuestos tipo hidrotalcita, con moléculas orgánicas con actividad antibacteriana, alojadas en sólidos. Los hidróxidos dobles lamelares (LDH) son estructuras sintéticas formadas por películas de hidróxido metálico con carga positiva que se estabilizan con aniones interlaminares. Se han estudiado diferentes materiales híbridos a partir de compuestos tipo hidrotalcita, como MgAl, ZnAl y MgFeAl, que contienen especies orgánicas de cefalexina sódica y ácidos nalidíxico y pipemídico. La intercalación de los diferentes aniones se realizó mediante uno de los diferentes métodos existentes: la coprecipitación de los compuestos tipo hidrotalcita en presencia de la molécula de interés y por el efecto memoria. La caracterización de los materiales se realizó mediante difracción de rayos X, espectroscopia de IR y resonancia magnética nuclear sólida, analizando específicamente los núcleos 27Al y 13C, y análisis termogravimétrico. La evaluación de la actividad antibacteriana de estos materiales se evaluó en cultivos de cepas de Escherichia coli (E. coli) y Salmonella typhi (S. typhi). La actividad antibacteriana de los sistemas híbridos probados no siempre es una función directa de la cantidad de antibiótico intercalado. Se obtuvo que el LDH ZnAl-NADmem presenta una liberación controlada, ya que cuando el material fue expuesto tres veces contra la bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli), continuó eliminando bacterias, presentando un efecto bacteriostático en la tercera exposición, ya que no eliminar las bacterias.


Author(s):  
Michael Anyekema ◽  
Lesley Sahber Kindzeka ◽  
Aristide Dzelamonyuy

Aim: This study was aimed at examining the antimicrobial and wound healing activities of Gardenia aqualla stem bark methanol extract (GASBME) in order to provide scientific basis for its antimicrobial and wound healing properties. Methodology: Preliminary phytochemical screening was done and antimicrobial activity determined using some pathogenic micro-organisms were evaluated following its wound healing effectiveness in Wistar rats using the model of superficial skin excision wound. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnet’s t-test. Results: The results of preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrate, cardiac glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, triterpenes, tannins, alkaloids with anthraquinones being absent. The extract showed antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi and significant (p< 0.05, p< 0.001) decrease in wound measurement by the 11th day. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that GASBME possesses antimicrobial activity with wound healing properties that justifies the ethno-medicinal use of the plant in wound/ulcer healings.


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