adult offspring
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Brian Akhaphong ◽  
Brigid Gregg ◽  
Doga Kumusoglu ◽  
Seokwon Jo ◽  
Kanakadurga Singer ◽  

The risk of obesity in adulthood is subject to programming in the womb. Maternal obesity contributes to programming of obesity and metabolic disease risk in the adult offspring. With the increasing prevalence of obesity in women of reproductive age there is a need to understand the ramifications of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy on offspring’s metabolic heath trajectory. In the present study, we determined the long-term metabolic outcomes on adult male and female offspring of dams fed with HFD during pregnancy. C57BL/6J dams were fed either Ctrl or 60% Kcal HFD for 4 weeks before and throughout pregnancy, and we tested glucose homeostasis in the adult offspring. Both Ctrl and HFD-dams displayed increased weight during pregnancy, but HFD-dams gained more weight than Ctrl-dams. Litter size and offspring birthweight were not different between HFD-dams or Ctrl-dams. A significant reduction in random blood glucose was evident in newborns from HFD-dams compared to Ctrl-dams. Islet morphology and alpha-cell fraction were normal but a reduction in beta-cell fraction was observed in newborns from HFD-dams compared to Ctrl-dams. During adulthood, male offspring of HFD-dams displayed comparable glucose tolerance under normal chow. Male offspring re-challenged with HFD displayed glucose intolerance transiently. Adult female offspring of HFD-dams demonstrated normal glucose tolerance but displayed increased insulin resistance relative to controls under normal chow diet. Moreover, adult female offspring of HFD-dams displayed increased insulin secretion in response to high-glucose treatment, but beta-cell mass were comparable between groups. Together, these data show that maternal HFD at pre-conception and during gestation predisposes the female offspring to insulin resistance in adulthood.

2022 ◽  
Meryem Ozlem KUTUK ◽  
Ali Evren TUFAN ◽  
Fethiye KILICASLAN ◽  
Pinar VURAL ◽  
Cem GOKCEN ◽  

Abstract The aim of this study is to determine functioning of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) diagnosed in childhood and also depression and burnout levels among their parents. 261 adults with ASDs and their parents were recruited for the study. Both parents completed the Beck Depression and Maslach Burnout Inventories and reported the functioning of their adult offspring with ASDs. Only 5.4 % of our sample reported “good” or “very good” outcome. The most common psychiatric comorbidities were intellectual disabilities and attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. Maternal burnout and depression scores were significantly elevated compared to those of fathers. There is an undeniable urgent need for more research to identify the needs of adults and families suffering from ASD.

Yunfei Tan ◽  
Yuko Fujita ◽  
Yaoyu Pu ◽  
Lijia Chang ◽  
Youge Qu ◽  

AbstractMaternal immune activation (MIA) plays a role in the etiology of schizophrenia. MIA by prenatal exposure of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] in rodents caused behavioral and neurobiological changes relevant to schizophrenia in adult offspring. We investigated whether the novel antidepressant (R)-ketamine could prevent the development of psychosis-like phenotypes in adult offspring after MIA. We examined the effects of (R)-ketamine (10 mg/kg/day, twice weekly for 4 weeks) during juvenile and adolescent stages (P28–P56) on the development of cognitive deficits, loss of parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and decreased dendritic spine density in the mPFC and hippocampus from adult offspring after prenatal poly(I:C) exposure. Furthermore, we examined the role of TrkB in the prophylactic effects of (R)-ketamine. Repeated intermittent administration of (R)-ketamine during juvenile and adolescent stages significantly blocked the development of cognitive deficits, reduced PV-immunoreactivity in the prelimbic (PrL) of mPFC, and decreased dendritic spine density in the PrL of mPFC, CA3 and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus from adult offspring after prenatal poly(I:C) exposure. Furthermore, pretreatment with ANA-12 (TrkB antagonist: twice weekly for 4 weeks) significantly blocked the beneficial effects of (R)-ketamine on cognitive deficits of adult offspring after prenatal poly(I:C) exposure. These data suggest that repeated intermittent administration of (R)-ketamine during juvenile and adolescent stages could prevent the development of psychosis in adult offspring after MIA. Therefore, (R)-ketamine would be a potential prophylactic drug for young subjects with high-risk for psychosis.

Ling Zeng ◽  
Jinzhao Zhou ◽  
Yanwei Zhang ◽  
Xiaofei Wang ◽  
Mei Wang ◽  

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal and ubiquitous environmental endocrine disruptor. Previous studies on Cd-induced damage to male fertility mainly focus on the structure and function of testis, including cytoskeleton, blood-testis barrier, and steroidogenesis. Nevertheless, to date, no studies have investigated the effects of Cd exposure on sperm epigenetic inheritance and intergenerational inheritance. In our study, we systematically revealed the changes in sperm tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNA) profiles and found that 14 tsRNAs (9 up-regulated and 5 down-regulated) were significantly altered after Cd exposure. Bioinformatics of tsRNA-mRNA-pathway interactions revealed that the altered biological functions mainly were related to ion transmembrane transport, lipid metabolism and cell membrane system. In addition, we focused on two stages of early embryo development and selected two organs to study the impact of these changes on cell membrane system, especially mitochondrion and lysosome, two typical membrane-enclosed organelles. Surprisingly, we found that the content of mitochondrion was significantly decreased in 2-cell stage, whereas remarkably increased in the morula stage. The contents of mitochondrion and lysosome were increased in the testes of 6-day-old offspring and livers of adult offspring, whereas remarkably decreased in the testes of adult offspring. This provides a possible basis to further explore the effects of paternal Cd exposure on offspring health.

3 Biotech ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Srinivasa Rao Sirasanagandla ◽  
Isehaq Al-Huseini ◽  
Mohamed Al Mushaiqri ◽  
Nadia Al-Abri ◽  
Fatma Al-Ghafri

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 29
Nair C. F. Castro ◽  
Izabelle S. Silva ◽  
Sabrina C. Cartágenes ◽  
Luanna M. P. Fernandes ◽  
Paula C. Ribera ◽  

Psychoactive substances during pregnancy and lactation is a key problem in contemporary society, causing social, economic, and health disturbance. In 2010, about 30 million people used opioid analgesics for non-therapeutic purposes, and the prevalence of opioids use during pregnancy ranged from 1% to 21%, representing a public health problem. This study aimed to evaluate the long-lasting neurobehavioral and nociceptive consequences in adult offspring rats and mice exposed to morphine during intrauterine/lactation periods. Pregnant rats and mice were exposed subcutaneously to morphine (10 mg/kg/day) during 42 consecutive days (from the first day of pregnancy until the last day of lactation). Offspring were weighed on post-natal days (PND) 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 60, and behavioral tasks (experiment 1) or nociceptive responses (experiment 2) were assessed at 75 days of age (adult life). Morphine-exposed female rats displayed increased spontaneous locomotor activity. More importantly, both males and female rats perinatally exposed to morphine displayed anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. Morphine-exposed mice presented alterations in the nociceptive responses on the writhing test. This study showed that sex difference plays a role in pain threshold and that deleterious effects of morphine during pre/perinatal periods are nonrepairable in adulthood, which highlights the long-lasting clinical consequences related to anxiety, depression, and nociceptive disorders in adulthood followed by intrauterine and lactation morphine exposure.

2021 ◽  
Jinqi Jiang ◽  
Shuyu Dong ◽  
Zhaoyun Liu ◽  
Lin Lin ◽  
Miao Zhang ◽  

Abstract Sufficient and Reasonable nutrient intake is essential for guaranteeing elderly people’s health, especially in rural China where elderly people are the main labor inputs in agricultural sector. Using the 2011 wave data of China Health and Nutrition Survey, this study has empirical analyzed the impact of adult children’s migration on nutrient intake of their elderly parents in rural areas. The results show that dietary energy and protein intake of rural elderly parents are inadequate where it is less than the Chinese RNI value significantly. Adult offspring migration positively relates with rural elderly parents’ protein intake as well as the dietary energy intake. In the families that partly adult offspring have out-migrated or in the one-child families, elderly parents benefit more from children migration. And for male, younger and low education elders, their nutrient intake is more likely to be improved by offspring migration.

2021 ◽  
Zahra Jalali ◽  
Saeed Bahrampour ◽  
Parvin Khalili ◽  
Nazanin Jalali ◽  
Ali Esmaeili Nadimi ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 34 (12) ◽  
pp. 1336-1337
Hong-an Ying ◽  
Zi-yang Huang ◽  
Zhen-hua Wang ◽  
En-hua Cheng ◽  
Hai-ying Xu ◽  

Abstract Background To investigate the effects of chronic intrauterine hypoxia on insulin resistance, hypertension, and the correlation between them in adult offspring rats. Methods A total of 25 pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into 4 prenatal chronic hypoxia (H) groups (10% ± 1% oxygen) and a control group (21% oxygen). The H groups were divided into whole (1–21 day), early (1–7 day), mid (8–14 day), and late (15–21 day) gestational hypoxia groups (H1, H2, H3, and H4, respectively) with pregnant rats being housed in a hypoxia box for 3 hours per day. Five male and 5 female offspring in each group were studied at 1 day, 3 months, and 6 months old. Blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, fasting serum insulin, and insulin resistance index were determined. Results The mean blood pressure of offspring rats in H groups was higher at 3 months, and further increased at 6 months old compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The fasting blood glucose and homeostasis model insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) of male and female offspring in the whole pregnancy (H1) and early pregnancy (H2) hypoxia groups were significantly higher than those in the control group at 6 months (P < 0.05). Fasting blood glucose and HOMA-IR were positively correlated with mean blood pressure (P < 0.05). The renal mass index in H2 group was lower at 3 months, and further decreased at 6 months compared to controls (P < 0.05). The mRNA and protein levels of insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1 and IRS-2) in the kidneys in hypoxia groups were significantly decreased at 6 months in H1 and H2 hypoxia groups when compared with controls (P < 0.05). Conclusions Chronic intrauterine hypoxia causes insulin resistance and hypertension in adult offspring rats through poor intrauterine growth environment, and insulin resistance is positively associated with hypertension.

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