basal cells
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Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 298
José Antonio de Mera-Rodríguez ◽  
Guadalupe Álvarez-Hernán ◽  
Yolanda Gañán ◽  
Ana Santos-Almeida ◽  
Gervasio Martín-Partido ◽  

The histochemical detection of β-galactosidase enzymatic activity at pH 6.0 (β-gal-pH6) is a widely used biomarker of cellular senescence in aging tissues. This histochemical assay also detects the presence of programmed cell senescence during specific time windows in degenerating structures of vertebrate embryos. However, it has recently been shown that this enzymatic activity is also enhanced in subpopulations of differentiating neurons in the developing central nervous system in vertebrates. The present study addressed the histochemical detection of β-gal-pH6 enzymatic activity in the developing postnatal olfactory epithelium in the mouse. This activity was detected in the intermediate layer of the olfactory epithelium. As development progressed, the band of β-gal-pH6 labeling in this layer increased in width. Immunohistochemistry and lectin histochemistry showed the β-gal-pH6 staining to be strongly correlated with the immunolabeling of the olfactory marker protein (OMP) that identifies mature olfactory sensory neurons. The cell somata of a subpopulation of differentiated olfactory neurons that were recognized with the Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) were always located inside this band of β-gal-pH6 staining. However, the β-gal-pH6 histochemical signal was always absent from the apical region where the cytokeratin-8 positive supporting cells were located. Furthermore, no β-gal-pH6 staining was found in the basal region of the olfactory epithelium where PCNA/pHisH3 immunoreactive proliferating progenitor cells, GAP43 positive immature neurons, and cytokeratin-5 positive horizontal basal cells were located. Therefore, β-gal-pH6 seems to be linked to neuronal differentiation and cannot be regarded as a biomarker of cellular senescence during olfactory epithelium development in mice.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Li Zhang ◽  
Yiming Zhang ◽  
Chengdi Wang ◽  
Ying Yang ◽  
Yinyun Ni ◽  

AbstractLung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and squamous carcinoma (LUSC) are two major subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer with distinct pathologic features and treatment paradigms. The heterogeneity can be attributed to genetic, transcriptional, and epigenetic parameters. Here, we established a multi-omics atlas, integrating 52 single-cell RNA sequencing and 2342 public bulk RNA sequencing. We investigated their differences in genetic amplification, cellular compositions, and expression modules. We revealed that LUAD and LUSC contained amplifications occurring selectively in subclusters of AT2 and basal cells, and had distinct cellular composition modules associated with poor survival of lung cancer. Malignant and stage-specific gene analyses further uncovered critical transcription factors and genes in tumor progression. Moreover, we identified subclusters with proliferating and differentiating properties in AT2 and basal cells. Overexpression assays of ten genes, including sub-cluster markers AQP5 and KPNA2, further indicated their functional roles, providing potential targets for early diagnosis and treatment in lung cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 835
Bang M. Tran ◽  
Samantha L. Grimley ◽  
Julie L. McAuley ◽  
Abderrahman Hachani ◽  
Linda Earnest ◽  

The global urgency to uncover medical countermeasures to combat the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has revealed an unmet need for robust tissue culture models that faithfully recapitulate key features of human tissues and disease. Infection of the nose is considered the dominant initial site for SARS-CoV-2 infection and models that replicate this entry portal offer the greatest potential for examining and demonstrating the effectiveness of countermeasures designed to prevent or manage this highly communicable disease. Here, we test an air–liquid-interface (ALI) differentiated human nasal epithelium (HNE) culture system as a model of authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Progenitor cells (basal cells) were isolated from nasal turbinate brushings, expanded under conditionally reprogrammed cell (CRC) culture conditions and differentiated at ALI. Differentiated cells were inoculated with different SARS-CoV-2 clinical isolates. Infectious virus release into apical washes was determined by TCID50, while infected cells were visualized by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. We demonstrate robust, reproducible SARS-CoV-2 infection of ALI-HNE established from different donors. Viral entry and release occurred from the apical surface, and infection was primarily observed in ciliated cells. In contrast to the ancestral clinical isolate, the Delta variant caused considerable cell damage. Successful establishment of ALI-HNE is donor dependent. ALI-HNE recapitulate key features of human SARS-CoV-2 infection of the nose and can serve as a pre-clinical model without the need for invasive collection of human respiratory tissue samples.

Peng Sun ◽  
Yingying Han ◽  
Maksim Plikus ◽  
Xing Dai

AbstractStem-cell containing mammary basal epithelial cells exist in a quasi-mesenchymal transcriptional state characterized by simultaneous expression of typical epithelial genes and typical mesenchymal genes. Whether robust maintenance of such a transcriptional state is required for adult basal stem cells to fuel self-renewal and regeneration remains unclear. In this work, we utilized SMA-CreER to direct efficient basal cell-specific deletion of Ovol2, which encodes a transcription factor that inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), in adult mammary gland. We identified a basal cell-intrinsic role of Ovol2 in promoting epithelial, and suppressing mesenchymal, molecular traits. Interestingly, Ovol2-deficient basal cells display minimal perturbations in their ability to support tissue homeostasis, colony formation, and transplant outgrowth. These findings underscore the ability of adult mammary basal cells to tolerate molecular perturbations associated with altered epithelia-mesenchymal plasticity without drastically compromising their self-renewal potential.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 86-88
Sara Bouabdella ◽  
Afaf Khouna ◽  
Siham Dikhaye ◽  
Nada Zizi

Pilomatricoma is a relatively rare tumor of the skin derived from primitive basal cells of the epidermis that differentiate into hair matrix cells. These tumors appear as solitary, firm nodules, showing a normal to pearl white epidermis. Its most frequent locations are the head and neck, while involvement of the upper extremities is relatively uncommon. Herein, we present the case of a seventeen-year-old female with pilomatricoma of the arm and review the literature regarding pilomatricomas of the upper extremities. The diagnosis of pilomatricoma is confirmed histologically and its treatment is based on surgical excision. Because of the low incidence and variable clinical presentation, pilomatricoma is a tumor not commonly suspected preoperatively. This presentation may help clinicians to diagnose this entity more effectively and decrease the rate of misdiagnosis.

2022 ◽  
V. Bleu Knight ◽  
Manasi P. Jogalekar ◽  
Elba E. Serrano

The tubulin protein fulfills a variety of cellular functions that range from chromosomal separation to locomotion. The functional diversity of tubulin is achieved through the expression of specific tubulin isotypes in different cell types or developmental time periods. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of tubulin also are vital for specific intracellular tasks, such as binding and recruiting motor proteins. In neurons, the isotypic expression profile for tubulin is well characterized, and the importance of PTMs for proper neuronal function has gained recent attention due to their implication in neurodegenerative disorders. In contrast, the role of tubulin specializations in the specification of neural cell fate has received minimal attention and studies of tubulin PTMs and isotypes in neuroglia such as astrocytes are relatively few. To bridge this knowledge gap, we undertook an analysis of PTMs in neurons and astrocytes derived from the federally approved H9 hESC-derived human neural stem cell (hNSC) line. In hNSCs, basal cells can be directed to assume neural fate as neurons or astrocytes by specifying different media growth conditions. Immunocytochemical methods, fluorescent antibody probes, and confocal microscopy facilitated image acquisition of fluorescent signals from class III β- tubulin (βIII-tubulin), acetylated tubulin, and polyglutamylated tubulin. Fluorescent probe intensities were assessed with the EBImage package for the statistical programming language R and compared using Student's t-tests. Qualitative analysis indicated that βIII-tubulin, acetylated tubulin, and polyglutamylated tubulin were expressed to some degree in basal hNSCs and their media-differentiated hNSC neuronal and astroglial progeny. In media-differentiated hNSC astrocyte progeny, quantification and statistical analysis of fluorescence probe intensity showed that acetylated tubulin/ βIII-tubulin ratios were greater than the ratio for polyglutamylated tubulin/ βIII-tubulin. These findings represent a snapshot of the dynamic and varied changes tubulin expression profile during the specification of neural cell fate. Results imply that investigations of tubulin PTMs have the potential to advance our understanding of the generation and regeneration of nervous tissue.

Jaymin J. Kathiriya ◽  
Chaoqun Wang ◽  
Minqi Zhou ◽  
Alexis Brumwell ◽  
Monica Cassandras ◽  

2021 ◽  
Angela H. Ting ◽  
Emily E Fink ◽  
Surbhi Sona ◽  
Uyen Tran ◽  
Pierre-Emmanuel Desprez ◽  

Tissue engineering offers a promising treatment strategy for ureteral strictures, but its success requires an in-depth understanding of the architecture, cellular heterogeneity, and signaling pathways underlying tissue regeneration. Here we define and spatially map cell populations within the human ureter using single-cell RNA sequencing, spatial gene expression, and immunofluorescence approaches. We focused on the stromal and urothelial cell populations to enumerate distinct cell types composing the human ureter and inferred potential cell-cell communication networks underpinning the bi-directional crosstalk between these compartments. Furthermore, we analyzed and experimentally validated the importance of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway in adult stem cell maintenance. The SHH-expressing basal cells supported organoid generation in vitro and accurately predicted the differentiation trajectory from basal stem cells to terminally differentiated umbrella cells. Our results highlight essential processes involved in adult ureter tissue homeostasis and provide a blueprint for guiding ureter tissue engineering.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yapeng Hou ◽  
Yan Ding ◽  
Danni Du ◽  
Tong Yu ◽  
Wei Zhou ◽  

Excessive secretion of airway mucus and fluid accumulation are the common features of many respiratory diseases, which, in turn, induce cell hypoxia in the airway epithelium, resulting in epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and ultimately fibrosis. However, the mechanisms of EMT induced by hypoxia in the airway are currently unclear. To mimic the status of edematous fluid retention in the airway, we cultured primary mouse tracheal epithelial cells (MTECs) in a liquid–liquid interface (LLI) mode after full differentiation in a classic air–liquid interface (ALI) culture system. The cell hypoxia was verified by the physical characteristics and lactate production in cultured medium as well as HIF expression in MTECs cultured by LLI mode. EMT was evidenced and mainly mediated by basal cells, supported by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence assay. The differently expressed genes of basal and other airway epithelial cells were found to be enriched in the ribosome by our analysis of an MTEC single-cell RNA sequencing data set and Myc, the global regulator of ribosome biogenesis was identified to be highly expressed in basal cells. We next separated basal cells from bulk MTECs by flow cytometry, and the real-time PCR results showed that ribosome biogenesis was significantly upregulated in basal cells, whereas the inhibition of ribosome biogenesis alleviated the phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin/AKT and abrogated hypoxia-induced EMT in MTECs. Collectively, these observations strongly suggest that basal cells in the airway epithelium may mediate the process of hypoxia-induced EMT, partly through enhancing ribosome biogenesis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (8) ◽  
pp. 2117-2139
Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu ◽  
Relly Victoria Virgil Petrescu

In general, life is only possible in the presence of oxygen in a form that can be easily absorbed by the body. In the case of humans, the lungs have as their main task the provision of the oxygen necessary for the body to carry out daily activities. The lung is a paired organ located in the chest cavity, a fibro-elastic organ capable of altering your volume during breathing (inspire and expire). The weight of a lung varies between 800 and 1,000 grams, of which more than 50% is blood. The air reaches the lungs through a pipeline system consisting of Nazo-pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchiole. The role of the piping system is to heat and dampen the air or to capture and remove foreign inhaled particles. The channel system decreases in diameter after each branch - from the trachea and the large bronchi to the bronchiole with a diameter of less than one millimeter. The lung consists of over 30 different cell types. Trachea and large bronchi are taped by a mucous layer containing multiple cell types: ciliary cells - provides mucus movement, caliciform cells - secretes mucus, basal cells - plays a role in regeneration and neuro-ectodermic cells - ensures the secretory function of the lungs. In the chorion (the deep layer beneath the mucosa) there are cells involved in the defense processes - lymphocytes, mast cells, eosinophils or neutrophils.

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