Enzymatic oxidations of thiophenes, including thiophene-containing drugs, are important for biodesulfurization of crude oil and drug metabolism of mono- and poly-cyclic thiophenes. Thiophene oxidative dearomatization pathways involve reactive metabolites, whose detection is important in the pharmaceutical industry, and are catalyzed by monooxygenase (sulfoxidation, epoxidation) and dioxygenase (sulfoxidation, dihydroxylation) enzymes. Sulfoxide and epoxide metabolites of thiophene substrates are often unstable, and, while cis-dihydrodiol metabolites are more stable, significant challenges are presented by both types of metabolite. Prediction of the structure, relative and absolute configuration, and enantiopurity of chiral metabolites obtained from thiophene enzymatic oxidation depends on the substrate, type of oxygenase selected, and molecular docking results. The racemization and dimerization of sulfoxides, cis/trans epimerization of dihydrodiol metabolites, and aromatization of epoxides are all factors associated with the mono- and di-oxygenase-catalyzed metabolism of thiophenes and thiophene-containing drugs and their applications in chemoenzymatic synthesis and medicine.
The liver is the primary site of drug metabolism, which can be altered by a variety of diseases affecting the liver parenchyma, especially in patients with liver cirrhosis. The use of antibiotics in patients with cirrhosis is usually a matter of concern for physicians, given the lack of practical knowledge for drug choice and eventual dose adjustments in several clinical scenarios. The aim of the current narrative review is to report, as broadly as possible, basic, and practical knowledge that any physician should have when approaching a patient with liver cirrhosis and an ongoing infection to efficiently choose the best antibiotic therapy.
Using drugs to treat COVID-19 symptoms may induce adverse effects and modify patient outcomes. These adverse events may be further aggravated in obese patients, who often present different illnesses such as metabolic-associated fatty liver disease. In Rennes University Hospital, several drug such as hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been used in the clinical trial HARMONICOV to treat COVID-19 patients, including obese patients. The aim of this study is to determine whether HCQ metabolism and hepatotoxicity are worsened in obese patients using an in vivo/in vitro approach. Liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry in combination with untargeted screening and molecular networking were employed to study drug metabolism in vivo (patient’s plasma) and in vitro (HepaRG cells and RPTEC cells). In addition, HepaRG cells model were used to reproduce pathophysiological features of obese patient metabolism, i.e., in the condition of hepatic steatosis. The metabolic signature of HCQ was modified in HepaRG cells cultured under a steatosis condition and a new metabolite was detected (carboxychloroquine). The RPTEC model was found to produce only one metabolite. A higher cytotoxicity of HCQ was observed in HepaRG cells exposed to exogenous fatty acids, while neutral lipid accumulation (steatosis) was further enhanced in these cells. These in vitro data were compared with the biological parameters of 17 COVID-19 patients treated with HCQ included in the HARMONICOV cohort. Overall, our data suggest that steatosis may be a risk factor for altered drug metabolism and possibly toxicity of HCQ.
Pregnant women are the most "untouchable" group of people in relation to pharmacological research due to ethical and legal aspects, as well as concerns for the health and integrity of the fetus. And that is why pregnant women practically do not participate in clinical, pharmacodynamic, or pharmacokinetic testing. The mechanisms of teratogenesis are unpredictable, and in this case mutations can occur regardless of the duration of pregnancy and at any level. In women during pregnancy, the activity of liver enzyme systems involved in drug metabolism changes completely, which affects their clearance. This should be taken into account when selecting drugs and dosages for the treatment of various diseases. Our study showed that during pregnancy, a significant decrease in the intrinsic hepatic clearance of the CYP1A2 substrate is enhanced by a decrease in the binding of theophylline to plasma proteins and an increase in the glomerular filtration rate.