growth and nutrition
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2022 ◽  
Vol 293 ◽  
pp. 110694
Hasan Sardar ◽  
Muhammad Akbar Anjum ◽  
Sajjad Hussain ◽  
Sajid Ali ◽  
Muhammad Rashid Shaheen ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 007-010
Michael John Dochniak

Vitamins are essential for cellular growth and nutrition. The bioavailability of vitamins may affect the immune system’s ability to fight cancer. Research efforts investigate the complex interplay of vitamins, immune cells, and cancer cells to improve treatment outcomes. This review explores managing the intake of vitamin A, B, C, D, E, and K to enhance the efficacy of forced-atopy cancer immunotherapy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 53 (2) ◽  
pp. 109-118
Déborah Sampaio de Almeida ◽  
Marta Simone Mendonça Freitas ◽  
Almy Junior Cordeiro de Carvalho ◽  
Rômulo André Beltrame ◽  
Sarah Ola Moreira ◽  

The present study evaluated the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on growth and nutrition of Euterpe edulis seedlings, supplemented or not with phosphate fertilization. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse. The randomized block design, consisted of a 3x2 factorial arrangement and 4 replicates, with two phosphorus doses (0 and 50 mg dm-3 of soil), two microbiological treatments (Rhizophagus clarus;  laroideoglomus etunicatum; R. clarus + C. etunicatum) and control (without fungus). Sowing and inoculation occurred concurrently in 2 kg plastic bags. Height, collar diameter, leaf area, dry shoot mass, macronutrient content and mycorrhizal colonization percentage were determined after 226 days. Regarding mycorrhizal colonization percentage, R. clarus resulted significantly beneficial for the production of E. edulis seedlings. In the absence of phosphate fertilization, R. clarus and mixed inoculum increased all biometric variables and macronutrient contents in seedlings. Therefore, it is concluded that AMF inoculations provide beneficial effects for growth and nutrition of E. edulis seedlings, resulting in more vigorous plants at a low-cost strategy. Highlights: Rhizophagus clarus resulted significantly beneficial for the production of E. edulis seedlings and in the absence of phosphate fertilization, and mixed inoculum ( clarus + Claroideoglomus etunicatum) increased all biometric variables and macronutrient contents in seedlings. The AMF inoculations provide beneficial effects for growth and nutrition of E. edulis seedlings, resulting in more vigorous plants at a low-cost strategy. The AMF, a biological agent of mutualistic associations with plants, constitutes an innovative approach to sustainable agriculture, contributing to increase plant survival rate, a key-factor for the successful reintroduction and conservation of E. edulis, as well as for its commercial exploitation.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 2322
Abdul Saboor ◽  
Muhammad Arif Ali ◽  
Shabir Husain ◽  
Muhammad Saeed Tahir ◽  
Muhammad Irfan ◽  

Zinc (Zn) is an important micronutrient for plants, whose deficiency in alkaline soils creates hurdles in the achievement of optimum crop growth. Moreover, overuse of phosphorus (P) fertilizers often causes Zn immobilization in the soil. The employment of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could be potentially environmentally friendly technology in this regard. Therefore, a pot experiment was conducted to assess the beneficial role of AMF (Glomus species) on maize under low and high P and Zn levels. Seven levels of Zn (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 mg Zn kg−1 soil ZnSO4·7H2O) and three levels of P (0, 14.5, 29 and 58 kg ac−1 as single superphosphate) were applied with (M+) and without AMF (M−). The results showed that a high application rate of Zn (100 and 120 mg Zn kg−1 soil) restricted P translocation in plants and vice versa. Moreover, the nutritional status of mycorrhizal plants (AM) was better than non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants. AM plants showed a maximum positive response at 20 mg Zn kg−1 soil, or 29 kg P ac−1. In response to 20 mg Zn kg−1 soil, root colonization was maximum, which enhanced the maize nutrient concentration in shoots. In conclusion, AMF inoculation (M+) with P (29 kg ac−1) and Zn (20 mg kg−1) is efficacious for improving maize’s growth and nutrition. More investigations are suggested at the field level under different agroclimatic zones to ascertain whether P (29 kg ac−1) or Zn (20 mg kg−1) with AMF is the best treatment for maize growth optimization.

2021 ◽  
Vol 890 (1) ◽  
pp. 012030
F Muchdar ◽  
R Andriani ◽  
Juharni ◽  
A Wulansari

Abstract Fish feed is the most essential necessity and the biggest contributor on production cost of fish cultivation. As much as 50-70% production cost is for fish feed. It can be deducted by made alternative fish feed. Black soldier fly larvae is an alternative fish feed with high protein content and most importantly it is cheap. The aim of this research was to evaluate the growth and nutrition content of black soldier fly larvae which cultivated in different medium. Medium used in this study was combination of coconut pulp residue and three other different medium, such as tofu dregs, sago dregs, and rice bran. Each combination had three different level of concentration, 1:1, 1:3, 1:5 (w:w). It was evaluated for nutrition content (proximate analysis), biomass, and dried yield. The result showed combination of coconut pulp and sago dregs 1:5 produced the highest biomass (465 g), but black soldier fly larvae produced from combination of coconut pulp residue and tofu dregs 1:3 had the highest protein content (39.78%). The best medium to produce black soldier fly larvae based on multiple attribute decision making (MADM) method was from the combination of coconut pulp residue and sago dregs 1:5 (w:w). It had 465 g biomass, 186 g dried yield, 23.73% protein, 47.67% fat, and 22.15% carbohydrate.

Curtis J. D’Hollander ◽  
Charles D.G. Keown-Stoneman ◽  
Catherine S. Birken ◽  
Deborah L. O’Connor ◽  
Jonathon L. Maguire

2021 ◽  
Vol 37 ◽  
pp. e37045
Joacir Morais ◽  
Cácio Luiz Boechat ◽  
Daniela Fernandes De Oliveira ◽  
Adriana Miranda de Santana Arauco ◽  
Filipe Selau Carlos ◽  

The association between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can be used to bioremediate areas contaminated by metals. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the lead (Pb2+) phytoaccumulation capacity, morpho-physiology and nutrition responses of Vernonia polyanthes exposed to a solution amended with concentrations of lead nitrate and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The treatments consisted of increasing doses of Pb2+ as lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2], two strains of AMF and an absolute control without lead and AMF. Lead negatively affected some morphophysiological variables, reduced 27.3, 25.63, 30.60, and 56.60% shoot length, root collar diameter, number of leaves and leaf area, respectively, besides reducing decreasing chlorophyll a. Lead accumulated in the shoot and roots, the latter at the highest concentrations. However, the translocation factor was above 1, indicating low efficiency. The bioaccumulation factor referring to the roots were above 1. The fungi colonization rate was low, 3.31% for Gigaspora margarita and 2.33% for Acaulospora morrowiae. However, the absorption of lead increased, reflecting in lower values of chlorophyll a, dry mass of root and diameter. Results indicated that the arboreal species V. polyanthes tolerate high concentrations of lead and can accumulate significant amounts in the roots. AMF increase the accumulation of lead in the shoot and can be used in projects aimed at the phytoextraction of metals.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Xin-Nan Zong ◽  
Hui Li ◽  
Ya-Qin Zhang ◽  
Hua-Hong Wu ◽  
Geng-Li Zhao ◽  

AbstractMost published newborn growth references are based on conventional monitoring data that usually included both low- and high-risk pregnancies. We sought to develop a set of neonatal growth standards constructed from only a large sample of low-risk pregnancies. A total of 24,375 naturally conceived singleton live births with gestational ages of 24–42 weeks were collected in 69 hospitals in thirteen Chinese cities between 2015 and 2018. Unhealthy infants or those with high-risk mother were excluded. Smoothed percentile curves of six anthropometric indicators were established using the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape. The 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentile references for birth weight, length, head circumference, weight/length, body mass index, and ponderal index were calculated for neonates with gestational ages of 24–42 weeks. This set of neonatal growth standards with six anthropometric indicators can provide more tools for growth and nutrition assessment and body proportionality in neonatal clinical practice. These standards might also help to show the differences between growth curves based on low-risk and mixed low- and high-risk pregnancies.

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