scholarly journals Vitamins and Cancer Immunotherapy

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 007-010
Michael John Dochniak

Vitamins are essential for cellular growth and nutrition. The bioavailability of vitamins may affect the immune system’s ability to fight cancer. Research efforts investigate the complex interplay of vitamins, immune cells, and cancer cells to improve treatment outcomes. This review explores managing the intake of vitamin A, B, C, D, E, and K to enhance the efficacy of forced-atopy cancer immunotherapy.

Farzad Taghizadeh-Hesary ◽  
Hassan Akbari ◽  
Moslem Bahadori

Like living organisms, cancer cells require energy to survive and interact with their environment. Recently, investigators demonstrated that cancer cells can hijack mitochondria from immune cells. This behavior sheds light on a pivotal piece in the puzzle of cancer, the ‘dependence’. This article illustrates how new, functional mitochondria help cancer cells to survive in the harsh tumor microenvironment, evade immune cells, and improve their malignancy. Finally, we will discuss how blocking the routes supplying energy for cancer cells can improve the treatment outcomes of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. This article provides a new theory in oncology, the ‘energy battle’ between cancer and immune cells. It alludes each party with a higher energy level can be the winner. This theory explains cancer biogenesis and provides novel insights to improve treatment outcomes.

Marjorie Justine Antonio ◽  
Cissy Zhang ◽  
Anne Le

AbstractThe beginning of the twenty-first century offered new advances in cancer research, including new knowledge about the tumor microenvironment (TME). Because TMEs provide the niches in which cancer cells, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and immune cells reside, they play a crucial role in cancer cell development, differentiation, survival, and proliferation. Throughout cancer progression, the TME constantly evolves, causing cancer cells to adapt to the new conditions. The heterogeneity of cancer, evidenced by diverse proliferation rates, cellular structures, metabolisms, and gene expressions, presents challenges for cancer treatment despite the advances in research. This chapter discusses how different TMEs lead to specific metabolic adaptations that drive cancer progression.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Tiecheng Wang ◽  
Jiakang Jin ◽  
Chao Qian ◽  
Jianan Lou ◽  
Jinti Lin ◽  

AbstractAs the essential sexual hormone, estrogen and its receptor has been proved to participate in the regulation of autoimmunity diseases and anti-tumor immunity. The adjustment of tumor immunity is related to the interaction between cancer cells, immune cells and tumor microenvironment, all of which is considered as the potential target in estrogen-induced immune system regulation. However, the specific mechanism of estrogen-induced immunity is poorly understood. Typically, estrogen causes the nuclear localization of estrogen/estrogen receptor complex and alternates the transcription pattern of target genes, leading to the reprogramming of tumor cells and differentiation of immune cells. However, the estrogen-induced non-canonical signal pathway activation is also crucial to the rapid function of estrogen, such as NF-κB, MAPK-ERK, and β-catenin pathway activation, which has not been totally illuminated. So, the investigation of estrogen modulatory mechanisms in these two manners is vital for the tumor immunity and can provide the potential for endocrine hormone targeted cancer immunotherapy. Here, this review summarized the estrogen-induced canonical and non-canonical signal transduction pathway and aimed to focus on the relationship among estrogen and cancer immunity as well as immune-related tumor microenvironment regulation. Results from these preclinical researches elucidated that the estrogen-target therapy has the application prospect of cancer immunotherapy, which requires the further translational research of these treatment strategies.

2006 ◽  
Vol 13 (4) ◽  
pp. 141-143 ◽  
T. Hahn ◽  
Emmanuel Akporiaye

Human tumours have evolved intricate mechanisms to evade the immune system, either by avoiding recognition or by inhibiting and eliminating immune cells. [...]

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Mark P. Ward ◽  
Laura E. Kane ◽  
Lucy A. Norris ◽  
Bashir M. Mohamed ◽  
Tanya Kelly ◽  

AbstractCancer cells that transit from primary tumours into the circulatory system are known as circulating tumour cells (CTCs). These cancer cells have unique phenotypic and genotypic characteristics which allow them to survive within the circulation, subsequently extravasate and metastasise. CTCs have emerged as a useful diagnostic tool using “liquid biopsies” to report on the metastatic potential of cancers. However, CTCs by their nature interact with components of the blood circulatory system on a constant basis, influencing both their physical and morphological characteristics as well as metastatic capabilities. These properties and the associated molecular profile may provide critical diagnostic and prognostic capabilities in the clinic. Platelets interact with CTCs within minutes of their dissemination and are crucial in the formation of the initial metastatic niche. Platelets and coagulation proteins also alter the fate of a CTC by influencing EMT, promoting pro-survival signalling and aiding in evading immune cell destruction. CTCs have the capacity to directly hijack immune cells and utilise them to aid in CTC metastatic seeding processes. The disruption of CTC clusters may also offer a strategy for the treatment of advance staged cancers. Therapeutic disruption of these heterotypical interactions as well as direct CTC targeting hold great promise, especially with the advent of new immunotherapies and personalised medicines. Understanding the molecular role that platelets, immune cells and the coagulation cascade play in CTC biology will allow us to identify and characterise the most clinically relevant CTCs from patients. This will subsequently advance the clinical utility of CTCs in cancer diagnosis/prognosis.

2020 ◽  
Vol 21 (12) ◽  
pp. 4441 ◽  
Pierpaolo Ginefra ◽  
Girieca Lorusso ◽  
Nicola Vannini

In recent years, immunotherapy has become the most promising therapy for a variety of cancer types. The development of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapies, the adoptive transfer of tumor-specific T cells (adoptive cell therapy (ACT)) or the generation of T cells engineered with chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) have been successfully applied to elicit durable immunological responses in cancer patients. However, not all the patients respond to these therapies, leaving a consistent gap of therapeutic improvement that still needs to be filled. The innate immune components of the tumor microenvironment play a pivotal role in the activation and modulation of the adaptive immune response against the tumor. Indeed, several efforts are made to develop strategies aimed to harness innate immune cells in the context of cancer immunotherapy. In this review, we describe the contribution of innate immune cells in T-cell-based cancer immunotherapy and the therapeutic approaches implemented to broaden the efficacy of these therapies in cancer patients.

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