production cost
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Ali Iqbal Abbas ◽  
Afaneen Anwer

The aim of this work is to solve the unit commitment (UC) problem in power systems by calculating minimum production cost for the power generation and finding the best distribution of the generation among the units (units scheduling) using binary grey wolf optimizer based on particle swarm optimization (BGWOPSO) algorithm. The minimum production cost calculating is based on using the quadratic programming method and represents the global solution that must be arriving by the BGWOPSO algorithm then appearing units status (on or off). The suggested method was applied on “39 bus IEEE test systems”, the simulation results show the effectiveness of the suggested method over other algorithms in terms of minimizing of production cost and suggesting excellent scheduling of units.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 250
Janet B. García-Martínez ◽  
Jefferson E. Contreras-Ropero ◽  
Néstor A. Urbina-Suarez ◽  
Germán L. López-Barrera ◽  
Andrés F. Barajas-Solano ◽  

The present research evaluates the simulation of a system for transforming inland-fisheries wastewater into sustainable fish feed using Designer® software. The data required were obtained from the experimental cultivation of Chlorella sp. in wastewater supplemented with N and P. According to the results, it is possible to produce up to 11,875 kg/year (31.3 kg/d) with a production cost of up to 18 (USD/kg) for dry biomass and 0.19 (USD/bottle) for concentrated biomass. Similarly, it was possible to establish the kinetics of growth of substrate-dependent biomass with a maximum production of 1.25 g/L after 15 days and 98% removal of available N coupled with 20% of P. It is essential to note the final production efficiency may vary depending on uncontrollable variables such as climate and quality of wastewater, among others.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2021 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-5
Vera Shumilina ◽  
Karen Avetisyan ◽  
Vitaliy Brykalov

The article is devoted to the research analysis of current patterns in the methodology of cost management at the enterprise. Modern methods of production cost management are analyzed. Methods that take into account the influence of the internal and external environment on production costs are determined. It is established that each method used autonomously does not solve the entire complex of management tasks. Therefore, the improvement of cost management methods should be based on the synthesis of a new method that includes the advantages of existing cost methods and eliminates their disadvantages

2022 ◽  
Andreu Lucía ◽  
Cano Marina ◽  
Noguera Luis ◽  
Lipan Leontina ◽  
Carbonell Ángel ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Abrar Inayat ◽  
Ashfaq Ahmed ◽  
Rumaisa Tariq ◽  
Ammara Waris ◽  
Farrukh Jamil ◽  

Biomass pyrolysis is one of the beneficial sources of the production of sustainable bio-oil. Currently, marketable bio-oil plants are scarce because of the complex operations and lower profits. Therefore, it is necessary to comprehend the relationship between technological parameters and economic practicality. This review outlines the technical and economical routine to produce bio-oils from various biomass by fast pyrolysis. Explicit pointers were compared, such as production cost, capacity, and biomass type for bio-oil production. The bio-oil production cost is crucial for evaluating the market compatibility with other biofuels available. Different pretreatments, upgrades and recycling processes influenced production costs. Using an energy integration strategy, it is possible to produce bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis. The findings of this study might lead to bio-oil industry-related research aimed at commercializing the product.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Rong Zhang ◽  
Ying Xu ◽  
Bin Liu

This paper investigates a supply chain consisting of the monopoly live broadcast platform, content producers, and consumers. Based on the two-sided market theory, the platform’s pricing strategies and their analysis are considered under the registration system and the transaction system. Firstly, it shows that platform users’ scale and profit are positively correlated with the intergroup network externality from both sides and the intragroup network externality inside the consumer group and negatively correlated with the intragroup network externality inside the content producer group. Secondly, the platform profit, registration fee charged to content producers, and transaction fee charged to consumers are negatively correlated to the content production cost and positively related to consumers’ content quality sensitivity coefficient. When consumers are more sensitive to content quality, they are positively correlated to content quality. Finally, the registration fee charged by the platform to consumers is positively correlated with the content production cost, negatively correlated with the content quality level, and positively associated with the consumer content quality sensitivity coefficient.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 280
Chil-Chyuan Kuo ◽  
Jing-Yan Xu ◽  
Yi-Jun Zhu ◽  
Chong-Hao Lee

Metal additive manufacturing techniques are frequently applied to the manufacturing of injection molds with a conformal cooling channel (CCC) in order to shorten the cooling time in the injection molding process. Reducing the cooling time in the cooling stage is essential to reducing the energy consumption in mass production. However, the distinct disadvantages include higher manufacturing costs and longer processing time in the fabrication of injection mold with CCC. Rapid tooling technology (RTT) is a widely utilized technology to shorten mold development time in the mold industry. In principle, the cooling time of injection molded products is affected by both injection mold material and coolant medium. However, little work has been carried out to investigate the effects of different mold materials and coolant media on the cooling performance of epoxy-based injection molds quantitatively. In this study, the effects of four different coolant media on the cooling performance of ten sets of injection molds fabricated with different mixtures were investigated experimentally. It was found that cooling water with ultrafine bubble is the best cooling medium based on the cooling efficiency of the injection molded parts (since the cooling efficiency is increased further by about 12.4% compared to the conventional cooling water). Mold material has a greater influence on the cooling efficiency than the cooling medium, since cooling time range of different mold materials is 99 s while the cooling time range for different cooling media is 92 s. Based on the total production cost of injection mold and cooling efficiency, the epoxy resin filled with 41 vol.% aluminum powder is the optimal formula for making an injection mold since saving in the total production cost about 24% is obtained compared to injection mold made with commercially available materials.

Xun-Lei Ding ◽  
Zhengyang Gao ◽  
Gaungyang Mao ◽  
Shengyi Chen ◽  
Yang Bai ◽  

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have been intensively investigated and made great progress due to their high photoelectric conversion efficiency and low production cost. However, poor stability and the toxicity of...

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