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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 007-010
Michael John Dochniak

Vitamins are essential for cellular growth and nutrition. The bioavailability of vitamins may affect the immune system’s ability to fight cancer. Research efforts investigate the complex interplay of vitamins, immune cells, and cancer cells to improve treatment outcomes. This review explores managing the intake of vitamin A, B, C, D, E, and K to enhance the efficacy of forced-atopy cancer immunotherapy.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 435
Arsela Prelaj ◽  
Mattia Boeri ◽  
Alessandro Robuschi ◽  
Roberto Ferrara ◽  
Claudia Proto ◽  

(1) Background: In advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC), programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) remains the only biomarker for candidate patients to immunotherapy (IO). This study aimed at using artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) tools to improve response and efficacy predictions in aNSCLC patients treated with IO. (2) Methods: Real world data and the blood microRNA signature classifier (MSC) were used. Patients were divided into responders (R) and non-responders (NR) to determine if the overall survival of the patients was likely to be shorter or longer than 24 months from baseline IO. (3) Results: One-hundred sixty-four out of 200 patients (i.e., only those ones with PD-L1 data available) were considered in the model, 73 (44.5%) were R and 91 (55.5%) NR. Overall, the best model was the linear regression (RL) and included 5 features. The model predicting R/NR of patients achieved accuracy ACC = 0.756, F1 score F1 = 0.722, and area under the ROC curve AUC = 0.82. LR was also the best-performing model in predicting patients with long survival (24 months OS), achieving ACC = 0.839, F1 = 0.908, and AUC = 0.87. (4) Conclusions: The results suggest that the integration of multifactorial data provided by ML techniques is a useful tool to select NSCLC patients as candidates for IO.

Farzad Taghizadeh-Hesary ◽  
Hassan Akbari ◽  
Moslem Bahadori

Like living organisms, cancer cells require energy to survive and interact with their environment. Recently, investigators demonstrated that cancer cells can hijack mitochondria from immune cells. This behavior sheds light on a pivotal piece in the puzzle of cancer, the ‘dependence’. This article illustrates how new, functional mitochondria help cancer cells to survive in the harsh tumor microenvironment, evade immune cells, and improve their malignancy. Finally, we will discuss how blocking the routes supplying energy for cancer cells can improve the treatment outcomes of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. This article provides a new theory in oncology, the ‘energy battle’ between cancer and immune cells. It alludes each party with a higher energy level can be the winner. This theory explains cancer biogenesis and provides novel insights to improve treatment outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Gelana Urgesa Ayana ◽  
Boka Tesfaye

Abstract Findings of conducted study showed that the predominant bacteria in Jimma University Veterinary Clinic. Among predominant bacteria identified includes; Escherichia coli 46 (34.3%), Klebsiella 23(17.2%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus 40(29.9%) and Streptococcus spp 25(18.7%). Among 4 species of bacteria isolated, 2 were gram negative and 2 of them was gram positive bacteria. Among the antibiotic susceptibility test, Staphylococcus aureus showed the total resistant on penicillin while tetracycline showed to have the highest sensitivity. Escherichia coli showed the total resistant on gentamicin (100%). Veterinary Clinic is at risk of acquiring bacterial infections due to the presence of mentioned bacteria during this study. The big issue is that these infections resist to antibiotics used in treatment according to results of the study. Health care workers in Veterinary Clinic should improve hygiene to control clinic acquired infections and much attention should be done during diagnosis to improve treatment of patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 78-87
Nungki Hapsari Suryaningtyas ◽  
Maya Arisanti

Malaria is a vector borne disease and is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In general, the prevalence of malaria parasites differed between age and sex with the highest prevalence occurring in children and women. This study uses secondary data from the Lubuklinggau City Health Office in 2015 - 2018. The number of malaria cases in Lubuklinggau City has decreased during 2015 - 2018. Most cases of malaria occur in women. The distribution of malaria cases was highest in the age group 15 - 64 years and there were still cases in children aged 0 - 5 years. The most common type of Plasmodium found is Plasmodium vivax. To maintain malaria elimination, Lubuklinggau City must eliminate indigenous cases and improve treatment management and management of malaria cases.

Becky Bikat S. Tilahun ◽  
Nicolas R. Thompson ◽  
Jocelyn F. Bautista ◽  
Lauren R. Sankary ◽  
Susan Stanton ◽  

Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 48
Carlos César Patiño-Morales ◽  
Ricardo Jaime-Cruz ◽  
Concepción Sánchez-Gómez ◽  
Juan Carlos Corona ◽  
Estefani Yaquelin Hernández-Cruz ◽  

Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used in alternative medicine to treat several diseases, such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and hepatic diseases. Several publications have highlighted other features of garlic, including its antibacterial, antioxidative, antihypertensive, and antithrombotic properties. The properties of garlic result from the combination of natural compounds that act synergistically and cause different effects. Some garlic-derived compounds have been studied for the treatment of several types of cancer; however, reports on the effects of garlic on neuroblastoma are scarce. Neuroblastoma is a prevalent childhood tumor for which the search for therapeutic alternatives to improve treatment without affecting the patients’ quality of life continues. Garlic-derived compounds hold potential for the treatment of this type of cancer. A review of articles published to date on some garlic compounds and their effect on neuroblastoma was undertaken to comprehend the possible therapeutic role of these compounds. This review aimed to analyze the impact of some garlic compounds on cells derived from neuroblastoma.

2021 ◽  
Danieli Guerra ◽  
Elisa Oliveira ◽  
Amanda Sonntag ◽  
Patrícia Sbaraine ◽  
André Fay ◽  

Abstract In this work, an intercomparison of sensitization effects produced by gold (GNP) and dextran-coated iron oxide (SPION-DX) nanoparticles in M059J and U87 human glioblastoma cells was performed using 6MV-photons. Three variables were mapped: the nanoparticle material, treatment concentration, and cell radiosensitivity. For U87, GNP treatments resulted in high sensitization enhancement ratios (SER10% up to 2.04). More modest effects were induced by SPION-DX, but still significant reductions in survival were achieved (maximum SER10%=1.61). For the radiosensitive M059J, sensitization by both NPs was poor. SER10% increased with the degree of elemental uptake in the cells, but not necessarily with treatment concentration. For GNP, where exposure concentration and elemental uptake were found to be proportional, SER10% increased linearly with concentration in both cell lines. For SPION-DX, saturation of sensitization enhancement and metal uptake occurred at high exposures. Fold change in the α/β ratios extracted from survival curves are reduced by the presence of SPION-DX but strongly increased by GNPs, suggesting that sensitization by GNPs occurs mainly via promotion of lethal damage, while for SPION-DX repairable damage dominates. The NPs were more effective in eliminating the radioresistant glioblastoma cells, an interesting finding, as resistant cells are key targets to improve treatment outcome.

Fangfang Chen ◽  
Thomas Kolben ◽  
Sarah Meister ◽  
Bastian Czogalla ◽  
Theresa M. Kolben ◽  

Abstract Objective Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic cancer. Resveratrol (RSV) is known to alter metabolism in cancer. It affects the nuclear retinoid-X-receptor (RXR), which implies a modulating effect of RXR to gynaecologic cancers. Furthermore, RSV targets Sirtuin1 (Sirt1), a histone deacetylase. Study design 123 tissue samples of patients with serous or mucinous ovarian cancer were examined for expression of Sirt1 and RXR. Ovarian cell lines were treated with RSV and consequences on viability and apoptosis were evaluated. The influence of RSV to Sirt1 and RXR expression was analyzed by western blotting Results A correlation of nuclear Sirt1 and RXRα expression could be detected (p = 0.006). Co-expression of nuclear RXRα and cytoplasmic (p = 0.026) or nuclear (p = 0.041) Sirt1 was associated with significantly increased overall survival in advanced tumour stages. Viability was decreased in all cell lines after stimulation with resveratrol, while cell apoptosis was increased. RSV treatment led to significant lower Sirt1 expression in A2780 cells (p = 0.025) and significant increased RXR expression in cisA2780 cells (p = 0.012) Conclusion In order to use RSV as medical target, studies could be developed to improve the understanding of drug resistance mechanisms and consequently improve treatment outcome.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. e001522
Andreas Vilhelmsson ◽  
Anita Sant'Anna ◽  
Axel Wolf

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