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Livers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 15-29
Emilio Flint ◽  
Evangelos Triantafyllou ◽  
Christine Bernsmeier

TAM receptors (Tyro3, Axl and MerTK) are a family of tyrosine kinase receptors that are expressed in a variety of cell populations, including liver parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells. These receptors are vital for immune homeostasis, as they regulate the innate immune response by suppressing inflammation via toll-like receptor inhibition and by promoting tissue resolution through efferocytosis. However, there is increasing evidence indicating that aberrant TAM receptor signaling may play a role in pathophysiological processes in the context of liver disease. This review will explore the roles of TAM receptors and their ligands in liver homeostasis as well as a variety of disease settings, including acute liver injury, steatosis, fibrosis, cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction and hepatocellular carcinoma. A better understanding of our current knowledge of TAM receptors in liver disease may identify new opportunities for disease monitoring as well as novel therapeutic targets. Nonetheless, this review also aims to highlight areas where further research on TAM receptor biology in liver disease is required.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Kaisa Ikkala ◽  
Vassilis Stratoulias ◽  
Frederic Michon

AbstractThe cornea, transparent and outermost structure of camera-type eyes, is prone to environmental challenges, but has remarkable wound healing capabilities which enables to preserve vision. The manner in which cell plasticity impacts wound healing remains to be determined. In this study, we report rapid wound closure after zebrafish corneal epithelium abrasion. Furthermore, by investigating the cellular and molecular events taking place during corneal epithelial closure, we show the induction of a bilateral response to a unilateral wound. Our transcriptomic results, together with our TGF-beta receptor inhibition experiments, demonstrate conclusively the crucial role of TGF-beta signaling in corneal wound healing. Finally, our results on Pax6 expression and bilateral wound healing, demonstrate the decisive impact of epithelial cell plasticity on the pace of healing. Altogether, our study describes terminally differentiated cell competencies in the healing of an injured cornea. These findings will enhance the translation of research on cell plasticity to organ regeneration.

2021 ◽  
Yasuyo Miyagi ◽  
Kyoko Fujiwara ◽  
Keigo Hikishima ◽  
Daisuke Utsumi ◽  
Chiaki Katagiri ◽  

Abstract Evidence has accumulated that higher consumption of high-fat diets (HFDs) during the juvenile/adolescent period induces altered hippocampal function and morphology; however, the mechanism behind this phenomenon remains elusive. Using high-resolution structural imaging combined with molecular and functional interrogation, a murine model of obesity treated with HFDs for 12 weeks after weaning mice was shown to change in the glutamate-mediated intracellular calcium signaling and activity, including further selective reduction of gray matter volume in the hippocampus associated with memory recall disturbance. Dysregulation of intracellular calcium concentrations was restored by a non-competitive α-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) antagonist, followed by normalization of hippocampal volume and memory recall ability, indicating that AMPARs may serve as an attractive therapeutic target for obesity-associated cognitive decline.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Dien Ye ◽  
Xiaofei Yang ◽  
Liwei Ren ◽  
Hong S. Lu ◽  
Yuan Sun ◽  

Objective: Elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations contributes to ischemic cardiovascular diseases. Recently, we showed that inhibiting hepatic (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] attenuated diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) deficient mice. The purpose of this study was to determine whether inhibiting hepatic (P)RR could attenuate atherosclerosis.Approach and Results: Eight-week-old male LDLR−/− mice were injected with either saline or N-acetylgalactosamine-modified antisense oligonucleotides (G-ASOs) primarily targeting hepatic (P)RR and were fed a western-type diet (WTD) for 16 weeks. (P)RR G-ASOs markedly reduced plasma cholesterol concentrations from 2,211 ± 146 to 1,128 ± 121 mg/dL. Fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) analyses revealed that cholesterol in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL)/LDL fraction were potently reduced by (P)RR G-ASOs. Moreover, (P)RR G-ASOs reduced plasma triglyceride concentrations by more than 80%. Strikingly, despite marked reduction in plasma lipid concentrations, atherosclerosis was not reduced but rather increased in these mice. Further testing in ApoE−/− mice confirmed that (P)RR G-ASOs reduced plasma lipid concentrations but not atherosclerosis. Transcriptomic analysis of the aortas revealed that (P)RR G-ASOs induced the expression of the genes involved in immune responses and inflammation. Further investigation revealed that (P)RR G-ASOs also inhibited (P)RR in macrophages and in enhanced inflammatory responses to exogenous stimuli. Moreover, deleting the (P)RR in macrophages resulted in accelerated atherosclerosis in WTD fed ApoE−/− mice.Conclusion: (P)RR G-ASOs reduced the plasma lipids in atherosclerotic mice due to hepatic (P)RR deficiency. However, augmented pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages due to (P)RR downregulation counteracted the beneficial effects of lowered plasma lipid concentrations on atherosclerosis. Our study demonstrated that hepatic (P)RR and macrophage (P)RR played a counteracting role in atherosclerosis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 118 (52) ◽  
pp. e2114244118
Roshini Fernando ◽  
Oshadi Caldera ◽  
Terry J. Smith

Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) represents a disfiguring and potentially blinding autoimmune component of Graves’ disease. It appears to be driven, at least in part, by autoantibodies targeting the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR)/insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) complex. Actions mediated through either TSHR or IGF-IR are dependent on IGF-IR activity. CD34+ fibrocytes, monocyte lineage cells, reside uniquely in the TAO orbit, where they masquerade as CD34+ orbital fibroblasts. Fibrocytes present antigens to T cells through their display of the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) while providing costimulation through B7 proteins (CD80, CD86, and programmed death-ligand 1 [PD-L1]). Here, we demonstrate that teprotumumab, an anti-IGF-IR inhibitor, attenuates constitutive expression and induction by the thyroid-stimulating hormone of MHC II and these B7 members in CD34+ fibrocytes. These actions are mediated through reduction of respective gene transcriptional activity. Other IGF-IR inhibitors (1H7 and linsitinib) and knocking down IGF-IR gene expression had similar effects. Interrogation of circulating fibrocytes collected from patients with TAO, prior to and following teprotumumab treatment in vivo during a phase 2 clinical trial, demonstrated reductions in cell-surface MHC II and B7 proteins similar to those found following IGF-IR inhibitor treatment in vitro. Teprotumumab therapy reduces levels of interferon-γ and IL-17A expression in circulating CD4+ T cells, effects that may be indirect and mediated through actions of the drug on fibrocytes. Teprotumumab was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for TAO. Our current findings identify potential mechanisms through which teprotumumab might be eliciting its clinical response systemically in patients with TAO, potentially by restoring immune tolerance.

Thyroid ◽  
2021 ◽  
Syed A Morshed ◽  
Risheng Ma ◽  
Rauf Latif ◽  
Terry Francis Davies

Yanji Zhu ◽  
Qian Li ◽  
Yuan Chen ◽  
Minle Tian ◽  
Wenlong Xun ◽  

2021 ◽  
Zachariah Bertels ◽  
Elizaveta Mangutov ◽  
Kendra Siegersma ◽  
Alycia Tipton ◽  
Amynah A Pradhan

AbstractOpioids are regularly prescribed for migraine and can result in medication overuse headache and dependence. We recently showed that pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is upregulated following opioid administration or in a model of chronic migraine. The goal of this study was to determine if PACAP was a link between opioid use and headache chronification. We tested the effect of PACAP-PAC1 receptor inhibition in novel models of opioid-exacerbated migraine pain and aura; and examined the co-expression between mu opioid receptor (MOR), PAC1, and PACAP in headache-associated brain and peripheral regions.To model opioid exacerbated migraine pain, mice were injected daily with morphine (10 mg/kg) or vehicle for 11 days. On days 3,5,7,9, and 11 they also received the known human migraine trigger nitroglycerin (0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle. To model opioid exacerbated aura, mice were treated with vehicle or morphine twice daily for 4 days (20 mg/kg on days 1-3, 40 mg/kg on day 4), a well-established paradigm for causing opioid-induced hyperalgesia. On day 5 they underwent cortical spreading depression, a physiological correlate of migraine aura. The effect of the PAC1 inhibitor, M65 (0.1 mg/kg), was tested in these models. Fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to investigate the expression of MOR, PAC1, and PACAP.Only mice treated with combined morphine and nitroglycerin developed chronic cephalic allodynia (n=18/group). M65 reversed this hypersensitivity (n=9/group). Morphine significantly increased the number of CSD events (n=8-9/group); and M65 decreased this exacerbation by morphine (n=8-12/group). PAC1 and/or PACAP were highly co-expressed with MOR, and varied by region (n=6/group). MOR and PACAP were co-expressed in the trigeminal ganglia, while MOR and PAC1 receptor showed near complete overlap in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis and periaqueductal gray. The cortex showed similar cellular co-expression between MOR-PACAP and MOR-PAC1.These results show that opioids facilitate the transition to chronic headache through induction of PACAPergic mechanisms. Antibodies or pharmacological agents targeting PACAP or PAC1 receptor may be particularly beneficial for the treatment of opioid-induced medication overuse headache.

Dennis Nurjadi ◽  
Kaan Kocer ◽  
Quan Chanthalangsy ◽  
Sabrina Klein ◽  
Klaus Heeg ◽  

Cefiderocol is a promising novel siderophore cephalosporin for the treatment of multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacilli and with stability against degradation by metallo-β-lactamases. Nonetheless, the emergence of cefiderocol in metallo-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales during therapy has been reported on more than one occasion. To understand the underlying mechanisms and factors facilitating the resistance development, we conducted an in vitro evolution experiment using clinical E. cloacae isolates via serial passaging under cefiderocol pressure. In this study, we show that the presence of the New-Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) facilitates the emergence of resistance via non-synonymous mutations of the CirA catecholate siderophore receptor. Inhibition of metallo-β-lactamase activity using dipicolinic acid prevented the emergence of cefiderocol-resistant mutants successfully. This finding implies that caution should be taken, when using cefiderocol for the treatment of infections caused by metallo-β-lactamase- producing bacteria.

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