Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 873-877
Author(s):  
Dongqian Xie ◽  
Zhicheng Gao ◽  
Mei Liu ◽  
Defeng Wang

Metformin is shown to have hypoglycemic effects. However, the relationship between metformin’s intervention in FFA-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated insulin resistance (IR) and insulin β-cell apoptosis under high-glucose condition remains unclear. Our study intends to assess their relationship. Human pancreatic β-cells were treated with metformin and cell proliferation and IR were detected by MTT assay along with detection of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by RT-PCR, cell cycle and apoptosis by flow cytometry. Metformin inhibited β cell proliferation which was mediated by FFA-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner as well as induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. In addition, metformin inhibited β-catenin signaling activation and decreased the expression of c-myc, Dvl-2, survivin, Dvl-3, GSK-3β (p-ser9) and promoted GSK-3 (p-tyr216) and Axin-2 expression. In conclusion, metformin inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling and promotes FFA to induce endoplasmic reticulum stress, thereby mediating pancreatic β-cells behaviors.


2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. e0009192
Author(s):  
Michael Weingartner ◽  
Simon Stücheli ◽  
Fadi Jebbawi ◽  
Bruno Gottstein ◽  
Guido Beldi ◽  
...  

Background Echinococcus multilocularis causes alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a rising zoonotic disease in the northern hemisphere. Treatment of this fatal disease is limited to chemotherapy using benzimidazoles and surgical intervention, with frequent disease recurrence in cases without radical surgery. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying E. multilocularis infections and host-parasite interactions ultimately aids developing novel therapeutic options. This study explored an involvement of unfolded protein response (UPR) and endoplasmic reticulum-stress (ERS) during E. multilocularis infection in mice. Methods E. multilocularis- and mock-infected C57BL/6 mice were subdivided into vehicle, albendazole (ABZ) and anti-programmed death ligand 1 (αPD-L1) treated groups. To mimic a chronic infection, treatments of mice started six weeks post i.p. infection and continued for another eight weeks. Liver tissue was then collected to examine inflammatory cytokines and the expression of UPR- and ERS-related genes. Results E. multilocularis infection led to an upregulation of UPR- and ERS-related proteins in the liver, including ATF6, CHOP, GRP78, ERp72, H6PD and calreticulin, whilst PERK and its target eIF2α were not affected, and IRE1α and ATF4 were downregulated. ABZ treatment in E. multilocularis infected mice reversed, or at least tended to reverse, these protein expression changes to levels seen in mock-infected mice. Furthermore, ABZ treatment reversed the elevated levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ in the liver of infected mice. Similar to ABZ, αPD-L1 immune-treatment tended to reverse the increased CHOP and decreased ATF4 and IRE1α expression levels. Conclusions and significance AE caused chronic inflammation, UPR activation and ERS in mice. The E. multilocularis-induced inflammation and consecutive ERS was ameliorated by ABZ and αPD-L1 treatment, indicating their effectiveness to inhibit parasite proliferation and downregulate its activity status. Neither ABZ nor αPD-L1 themselves affected UPR in control mice. Further research is needed to elucidate the link between inflammation, UPR and ERS, and if these pathways offer potential for improved therapies of patients with AE.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Author(s):  
Guo-Biao Wu ◽  
Hui-Bo Du ◽  
Jia-Yi Zhai ◽  
Si Sun ◽  
Jun-Ling Cui ◽  
...  

Hemorrhagic shock is associated with activation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Previous studies demonstrated that central RAS activation produced by various challenges sensitizes angiotensin (Ang) II-elicited hypertension and that ERS contributes to the development of neurogenic hypertension. The present study investigated whether controlled hemorrhage could sensitize Ang II-elicited hypertension and whether the brain RAS and ERS mediate this sensitization. Results showed that hemorrhaged (HEM) rats had a significantly enhanced hypertensive response to a slow-pressor infusion of Ang II when compared to sham HEM rats. Treatment with either angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 1 inhibitor, captopril, or ACE2 activator, diminazene, abolished the HEM-induced sensitization of hypertension. Treatment with the ERS agonist, tunicamycin, in sham HEM rats also sensitized Ang II-elicited hypertension. However, blockade of ERS with 4-phenylbutyric acid in HEM rats did not alter HEM-elicited sensitization of hypertension. Either HEM or ERS activation produced a greater reduction in BP after ganglionic blockade, upregulated mRNA and protein expression of ACE1 in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and elevated plasma levels of Ang II but reduced mRNA expression of the Ang-(1-7) receptor, Mas-R, and did not alter plasma levels of Ang-(1-7). Treatment with captopril or diminazene, but not phenylbutyric acid, reversed these changes. No treatments had effects on PVN protein expression of the ERS marker glucose-regulated protein 78. The results indicate that controlled hemorrhage sensitizes Ang II-elicited hypertension by augmenting RAS prohypertensive actions and reducing RAS antihypertensive effects in the brain, which is independent of ERS mechanism.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Author(s):  
Li-Na Zhang ◽  
Meng-Jie Li ◽  
Ying-Hui Shang ◽  
Yun-Ru Liu ◽  
Huang Han-Chang ◽  
...  

Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) characterized by neurofibrillary tangles caused by hyperphosphorylated tau is the most common cause of dementia. Zeaxanthin (Zea), derived from fruits and vegetables, may reduce the risk of AD. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) might cause memory impairment in AD. Objective: Here, we studied protective role of Zea on the relationship among ERS, activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β, tau phosphorylated kinase), and p-Tau (Ser 396 and Thr 231). Methods: The results were obtained in non-RA and RA group by using different treatment, such as 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA), TM (ERS inducer), Zea, 4-PBA (ERS inhibitor), and SB216763 (GSK-3β inhibitor). The methods included flow cytometry and MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] for the detections of cell cycle and cell viability and western blot as a third measure of proteins in relation to ERS and tau phosphorylation. We have collected and analyzed all the data that suggested application of drugs for the treatment in non-RA and RA group. Results: Zea displays its protection on TM-induced cell injury, upregulation of GRP78 expression, and change of GSK-3β activity and tau phosphorylation when 4-PBA and SB216763 interfere with the process. Conclusion: These studies indicated that Zea is in vicious circle in ERS, GSK-3β, and tau phosphorylation, and further reflect its potential value in AD.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262628
Author(s):  
Mauricio Torres ◽  
Karen Castillo ◽  
Ricardo Armisén ◽  
Andrés Stutzin ◽  
Claudio Soto ◽  
...  

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