food law
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2022 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Kai P. Purnhagen ◽  
Alexandra Molitorisová

Abstract What type of enforcement is the most effective to punish violations of food law or to prevent them from occurring in the first place? This article examines the question of which mix of private and public enforcement exists in European Union (EU) food law and whether this mix corresponds to the recommendations of existing social science research. Based on this research, we contend that EU-determined enforcement mechanisms differ in effectiveness across Member States. New technologies have the potential to stimulate a novel mix of public and private enforcement tools at the EU and national levels.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 230
Evangelia Katsouri ◽  
Antonios Zampelas ◽  
Eleftherios H. Drosinos ◽  
George-John E. Nychas

A labelling assessment study of Greek prepacked “quality label” cheeses was conducted with a view to provide an overview of the whole category. In total, 158 prepacked products belonging to 19 “quality label” cheeses were identified in the Greek market. Among them, Feta had the highest share followed by Kasseri, Graviera Kritis, Kefalograviera and Ladotyri Mitilinis with 81, 16, 15, 11 and 9 products found in the market, respectively. For the rest of the 14 cheeses, the share was limited, ranging from 1 to 4. All labelling indications, nutritional information, claims and other labelling data were recorded and analysed in relation to their compliance against European food law requirements. The results of the analysis showed that for only 6 of the 19 cheeses, all products fully complied with EU labelling legislation. Among the 14 mandatory labelling requirements, the lowest overall compliance was observed for allergens declaration (65%). The analysis of the nutritional data showed a remarkable variability between cheeses and products. Differences in the nutritional characteristics were more pronounced among soft, semi-hard, hard and whey cheese. The above data were entered into an archival database. Application of global harmonisation and standardisation guidelines and tools lead to the initialisation of a branded food composition database (BFCD), conceptualising a specialised database for “quality label” foods.

Julia Eisenblätter ◽  
Gerry Schumacher ◽  
Marie Hirt ◽  
Janine Wild ◽  
Loan Catalano ◽  

Summary Purpose This project aimed to investigate allergen information practices of food businesses selling non-prepacked foods after the implementation of the new Swiss food law in May 2017. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted with food businesses selling non-prepacked foods in Switzerland. A short, standardised questionnaire was developed in German, based on previous research and literature. It was subsequently translated into French and Italian. Altogether, 882 businesses (restaurants, dairies, butcher shops and bakeries) were contacted, of which 387 were willing to participate. SPSS® (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) was used for statistical analyses. Results The vast majority (86.0%) of food businesses provides oral allergen information. Only 14.0% currently provide written allergen information to the customer, either upfront or on request. The most frequently used labelling system in written allergen declaration was naming all ingredients (35.2%). A significant number (39.8%) do not place a notice on how to obtain allergen information, although this is a legal requirement in Switzerland when not providing written information upfront. Conclusion So far, not all food businesses have been complying with the new Swiss food law on allergen information of non-prepacked food. Therefore, awareness of the legal obligations around communicating allergen information as well as the verification of its implementation should be enhanced. To meet the needs of consumers and avoid reactions, some form of written allergen information should be promoted. Giving this information on request might encourage communication between customer and staff, thus providing an extra measure of verification.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2670
Antoon Lievens ◽  
Valentina Paracchini ◽  
Danilo Pietretti ◽  
Linda Garlant ◽  
Alain Maquet ◽  

The EU General Food Law not only aims at ensuring food safety but also to ‘prevent fraudulent or deceptive practices; the adulteration of food; and any other practices which may mislead the consumer’. Especially the partial or complete, deliberate, and intentional substitution of valuable ingredients (e.g., Saffron) for less valuable ones is of concern. Due to the variety of products on the market an approach to detect food adulteration that works well for one species may not be easily applicable to another. Here we present a broadly applicable approach for the detection of substitution of biological materials based on digital PCR. By simultaneously measuring and forecasting the number of genome copies in a sample, fraud is detectable as a discrepancy between these two values. Apart from the choice of target gene, the procedure is identical across all species. It is scalable, rapid, and has a high dynamic range. We provide proof of concept by presenting the analysis of 141 samples of Saffron (Crocus sativus) from across the European market by DNA accounting and the verification of these results by NGS analysis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 892 (1) ◽  
pp. 012054
N Yulianis ◽  
Sarastuti ◽  
Risfaheri ◽  
B Rachman

Abstract In aggregate, Indonesia’s national food reserves (rice) in early 2021 are adequate, as indicated by the stock to use ratio (SUR) reaching 25.16% above the FAO recommendation of 17‒18%, with the end of 2020 rice stock reaching 7.9 million tons from 29.3 million tons rice consumption needs. As mandated by Food Law 18/2012, Indonesia has established a multi-layered mechanism of national food reserves, consist of a central government food reserve, regional government food reserves (provincial, district/city, and village level), and community food reserves. This paper aims to examine the various implementation of Indonesia’s national rice reserves along with synergy recommendations to strengthen government, regional governments, and community’s food reserves. The approach used is descriptive qualitative analysis, by exploring information and secondary data across institutions with national and regional coverage. The results of the study show: (1) the need for an increase in Central Government Rice Reserves (CGRR) in the range of 1.5‒2 million tons accompanied by strengthening the mechanism to absorb farmers production of unhulled rice/rice to stabilize rice prices especially at the peak harvest time; (2) strengthening the intensity of advocacy and coordination amongst key-stakeholders in provincial and district/city to optimize the implementation of government food reserves area; and (3) strengthening and developing village-based community food barns through cooperation with the Strategic Command for Rice Mill Development (Kostraling) and Village Owned Enterprise (BUM Desa and BUM Desma).

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 531
Elok Dinar Anggitasari ◽  
Yaktiworo Indriani ◽  
Fembriarti Erry Prasmatiwi

The aims of this research are to analyze the level of food security, the factors that affect the level of food security, and efforts to increase the level of food security of coffee farmer households.  The method used in this research is a survey method.  Location is chosen purposively in Ngarip and Sukamaju Villages, Ulu Belu Subdistrict, Tanggamus regency with samples of 70 coffee farmer households selected using a simple random method.  The data were primary and secondary data, collected in May - July 2018 and analyzed by cross-table between the share of food expenditure and energy adequacy level, ordinal logistic regression, and descriptive qualitative analysis.  The results of the research according to BPS showed that the majority of respondents belonged to the category of food secure (31.43%), and the rest belonged to the category lack of food (30.00%), food vulnerable (22.86%), food insecure (15.71%).  The results according to nutrition and 2012 food law showed that the majority of respondents belonged to the category of food security (50.00%), lack of food (41.43%), food vulnerable (5.71%), and food insecure (2.86%).  The affecting factors on the level of food security were the household income and education level of housewives.  The efforts to increase the level of food security by Government were conducted by monitoring of food availability and food reserves, developing food distribution and stabilization of food prices, developing diversification of consumption and food security as well as staple food assistance through the raskin program, whereas efforts are carried out by households coffee farmers, namely by doing productive activities outside the coffee farm.Key words: coffee farmer households, food expenditure, food security

2021 ◽  
Maria El Gemayel

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 3244
Alan W. Barclay ◽  
Livia S. A. Augustin ◽  
Furio Brighenti ◽  
Elizabeth Delport ◽  
C. Jeyakumar Henry ◽  

The glycaemic index (GI) is a food metric that ranks the acute impact of available (digestible) carbohydrates on blood glucose. At present, few countries regulate the inclusion of GI on food labels even though the information may assist consumers to manage blood glucose levels. Australia and New Zealand regulate GI claims as nutrition content claims and also recognize the GI Foundation’s certified Low GI trademark as an endorsement. The GI Foundation of South Africa endorses foods with low, medium and high GI symbols. In Asia, Singapore’s Healthier Choice Symbol has specific provisions for low GI claims. Low GI claims are also permitted on food labels in India. In China, there are no national regulations specific to GI; however, voluntary claims are permitted. In the USA, GI claims are not specifically regulated but are permitted, as they are deemed to fall under general food-labelling provisions. In Canada and the European Union, GI claims are not legal under current food law. Inconsistences in food regulation around the world undermine consumer and health professional confidence and call for harmonization. Global provisions for GI claims/endorsements in food standard codes would be in the best interests of people with diabetes and those at risk.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 23-46
Nor Akhmal Hasmin ◽  
Anida Mahmood ◽  
Najwa Azizun ◽  
Nur Hafidah Abd Kadir ◽  

The integration of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the food and agriculture industry is now common and rampant among giant food manufacturers to enhance the quality, functionality, and physicality of food products. However, consumers have not been consulted and informed on the use of ENMs in food despite various potential safety and health risks associated with oral exposure of ENMs illustrated from scientific studies. In the European Union, the food law was amended to include provisions on nanotechnology after conducting a public consultation to explore public awareness and perception of nanotechnology. In the absence of a specific regulatory framework for nanofood in Malaysia, this study aims to analyse consumers’ awareness and knowledge of nanofood. The result from the study serves as an invaluable input to the regulatory authority in framing any regulatory reform to regulate nanofood. A survey was conducted using a closed-ended questionnaire distributed online. The result indicates that the awareness and understanding of nanofood are still lacking and not satisfactory.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-18

While it is a consumer’s prerogative to be offered all kinds of food products they can choose from, it is also a consumer’s own responsibility as to what kind of products they choose. It is still argued that free choice is only an illusion due to the general decline in food quality; in this context, the extent of free choice that the consumer has is considered, as well as the factors affecting it. These include fundamental European Union principles that demand strong science to prove safety, observe the lowest applicable quality standards and by extent offer a wide leniency range to food manufacturers when it comes to food quality. Another main factor stems from a food law that intensely focuses on securing food safety, while somehow disregarding quality. In addition to that, major efforts have been concentrated on strengthening food information for the purpose of enabling consumers to make healthier choices by both simplifying information on the front of packaging and increasing it on the back, while no direct changes targeting the composition of food have been proposed. As a result, what healthy food choices are left on the market and how accessible are they to consumers?

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