electron backscatter
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Yi-Yun Tsai ◽  
Yi-Chen Pan ◽  
Jui-Chao Kuo

AbstractA raw electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) signal can be empirically decomposed into a Kikuchi diffraction pattern and a smooth background. For pattern indexing, the latter is generally undesirable but can reveal topographical, compositional, or diffraction contrast. In this study, we proposed a new background correction method using polynomial fitting (PF) algorithm to obtain clear Kikuchi diffraction patterns for some applications in nonconductive materials due to coating problems, at low accelerated voltage and at rough sample surfaces and for the requirement of high pattern quality in HR-EBSD. To evaluate the quality metrics of the Kikuchi patterns, we initially used three indices, namely, pattern quality, Tenengrad variance, and spatial–spectral entropy-based quality to detect the clarity, contrast, and noise of Kikuchi patterns obtained at 5 and 15 kV. Then, we examined the performance of PF method by comparing it with pattern averaging and Fourier transform-based methods. Finally, this PF background correction is demonstrated to extract the background images from the blurred diffraction patterns of EBSD measurements at low kV accelerating voltage and with coating layer, and to provide clear Kikuchi patterns successfully.

Xiao Wang ◽  
Yuetao Zhang ◽  
Zhengqing Zhou ◽  
Mingyu Huang

This paper reports the degradation assessment of mild steel during the plastic tensile process. The electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique was adopted in this study. The orientation maps showed that with the increase of tensile strain, the grain surface become wrinkled, and the deviation level of intragranular orientation also increased. Meanwhile, the parameters based on the image quality of the Kikuchi bands (i.e. BC and MAD) as well as the crystallographic orientation (i.e. LAGBs content, GND density, GOS, and GROD) can be used to evaluate the degradation degree of the mild steel. The results showed that the change of BC and MAD was significant at the end of plastic stage, but was not sufficiently distinctive at the early stage; Meanwhile, the LAGBs content and GND density increased evidently during the plastic tensile. Compared with the former, the GND density exhibited stronger regularity and better evaluation effect; Besides, a general upward trend of GOS and GROD was observed at this tensile process. However, the GROD changed less at the certain plastic stage. Compared with GROD, the GOS exhibited a relatively better evaluation effect; To sum up, the GND density and GOS are the better indicators for evaluating the degradation degree of mild steel.

Metals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 1783
Henri Tervo ◽  
Antti Kaijalainen ◽  
Vahid Javaheri ◽  
Mohammed Ali ◽  
Tuomas Alatarvas ◽  

The presence of acicular ferrite (AF) in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of steels used offshore is generally seen as beneficial for toughness. In this study, the effects of varying fractions of AF (0–49 vol.%) were assessed in the simulated, unaltered and coarse-grained heat-affected zones (CGHAZ) of three experimental steels. Two steels were deoxidized, with one using Ti and the other using Al. The characterization was carried out by using electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, electron backscatter diffraction and X-ray diffraction. The fraction of AF varied with the heat input and cooling time applied in the Gleeble thermomechanical simulator. AF was present in one of the Ti-deoxidized steels with all the applied cooling times, and its fraction increased with increasing cooling time. However, in other materials, only a small fraction (13–22%) of AF was present and only when the longest cooling time was applied. The impact toughness of the simulated specimens was evaluated using instrumented Charpy V-notch testing. Contrary to the assumption, the highest impact toughness was obtained in the conventional Al-deoxidized steel with little or no AF in the microstructure, while the variants with the highest fraction of AF had the lowest impact toughness. It was concluded that the coarser microstructural and inclusion features of the steels with AF and also the fraction of AF may not have been great enough to improve the CGHAZ toughness of the steels investigated.

2021 ◽  
Vol 326 ◽  
pp. 149-156
Przemysław Snopiński

This study was conducted to study the effect ultrasonic vibrations on the evolution of the microstructure and hardness of the AlMg3 aluminum alloy in a solution treated condition. To understand the process physics in this article, after the deformation the microstructures of the samples before and after deformation were analyzed by the light and electron microscopy, including the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. The result evidently shows that the ultrasonic-assisted deformation has a meaningful influence on the grain refinement – the application of the USV enhances the formation of deformation bands and new sub-grains. This resulted in a certain hardness enhancement.

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