backscatter diffraction
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2022 ◽  
Vol 55 (1) ◽  
Ruth Birch ◽  
Thomas Benjamin Britton

Materials with an allotropic phase transformation can form microstructures where grains have orientation relationships determined by the transformation history. These microstructures influence the final material properties. In zirconium alloys, there is a solid-state body-centred cubic (b.c.c.) to hexagonal close-packed (h.c.p.) phase transformation, where the crystal orientations of the h.c.p. phase can be related to the parent b.c.c. structure via the Burgers orientation relationship (BOR). In the present work, a reconstruction code, developed for steels and which uses a Markov chain clustering algorithm to analyse electron backscatter diffraction maps, is adapted and applied to the h.c.p./b.c.c. BOR. This algorithm is released as open-source code (via github, as ParentBOR). The algorithm enables new post-processing of the original and reconstructed data sets to analyse the variants of the h.c.p. α phase that are present and understand shared crystal planes and shared lattice directions within each parent β grain; it is anticipated that this will assist in understanding the transformation-related deformation properties of the final microstructure. Finally, the ParentBOR code is compared with recently released reconstruction codes implemented in MTEX to reveal differences and similarities in how the microstructure is described.

Metals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 139
Ki-Hong Kim ◽  
Won-Beom Lee ◽  
Tae-Hwan Kim ◽  
Seok-Won Son

Potential-controlled nitriding is an effective technique for enhancing the life of steel molds and dies by improving their surface hardness and toughness against fatigue damage. In this study, the effect of the nitriding potential on the microstructure and fracture toughness of nitrided AISI D2 steels was investigated. The nitrided layers were characterized by microhardness measurements, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, and their phases were identified by X-ray and electron backscatter diffraction. As the nitriding potential increased to 2.0 atm−1/2, an increase in the surface hardness and fracture toughness was observed with the growth of the compound layer. However, both the surface hardness and the fracture toughness decreased at the higher nitriding potential of 5.0 atm−1/2 owing to the increased porosity in the compound layers, which mainly consist of the ε (Fe2–3N) phase. Additionally, by observing crack growth behavior, the fracture toughness was analyzed considering the material characteristics of the diffusion and compound layers. The fracture toughness was influenced by the location of the initial Palmqvist cracks due to the localized plastic deformation of the diffusion layer and increased crack length due to the porous compound layer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 345-353
Meiqi Dai ◽  
Xuemei Song ◽  
Chucheng Lin ◽  
Ziwei Liu ◽  
Wei Zheng ◽  

AbstractYttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings and Al2O3-YSZ coatings were prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). Their microstructural changes during thermal cycling were investigated via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the microstructure and microstructure changes of the two coatings were different, including crystallinity, grain orientation, phase, and phase transition. These differences are closely related to the thermal cycle life of the coatings. There is a relationship between crystallinity and crack size. Changes in grain orientation are related to microscopic strain and cracks. Phase transition is the direct cause of coating failure. In this study, the relationship between the changes in the coating microstructure and the thermal cycle life is discussed in detail. The failure mechanism of the coating was comprehensively analyzed from a microscopic perspective.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Yi-Yun Tsai ◽  
Yi-Chen Pan ◽  
Jui-Chao Kuo

AbstractA raw electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) signal can be empirically decomposed into a Kikuchi diffraction pattern and a smooth background. For pattern indexing, the latter is generally undesirable but can reveal topographical, compositional, or diffraction contrast. In this study, we proposed a new background correction method using polynomial fitting (PF) algorithm to obtain clear Kikuchi diffraction patterns for some applications in nonconductive materials due to coating problems, at low accelerated voltage and at rough sample surfaces and for the requirement of high pattern quality in HR-EBSD. To evaluate the quality metrics of the Kikuchi patterns, we initially used three indices, namely, pattern quality, Tenengrad variance, and spatial–spectral entropy-based quality to detect the clarity, contrast, and noise of Kikuchi patterns obtained at 5 and 15 kV. Then, we examined the performance of PF method by comparing it with pattern averaging and Fourier transform-based methods. Finally, this PF background correction is demonstrated to extract the background images from the blurred diffraction patterns of EBSD measurements at low kV accelerating voltage and with coating layer, and to provide clear Kikuchi patterns successfully.

Xu Lu ◽  
Dong Wang ◽  
Di Wan ◽  
Xiaofei Guo ◽  
Roy Johnsen

AbstractIn this study, the effect of hydrogen on dislocation and twinning behavior along various grain boundaries in a high-manganese twinning-induced plasticity steel was investigated using an in situ micropillar compression test. The compressive stress in both elastic and plastic regimes was increased with the presence of hydrogen. Further investigation by transmission electron backscatter diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscope demonstrated that hydrogen promoted both dislocation multiplication and twin formation, which resulted in higher stress concentration at twin–twin and twin–grain boundary intersections.

Crystals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 81
Meirong Shuai ◽  
Binbin Chang ◽  
Min Zhang ◽  
Zhibing Chu ◽  
Haibin Li ◽  

To ensure the long service life of concrete buildings in the marine environment, it is urgent to develop building materials with good corrosion resistance and weatherability. Stainless steel cladding is suitable for a highly corrosive environment and provides cost advantages. This paper investigated the deformation coordination and the microstructure evolution near the cladding interface of stainless steel/carbon steel. The stress-strain curves at different temperatures and strain rates were analyzed on the basis of high-temperature compression experiments. In addition, the sin-hyperbolic constitutive model was constructed, and the optimized parameters were obtained using electron backscatter diffraction characterization technology. The results show that at the deformation temperature of 1100 °C and the strain rate of 1 s−1, the deformation coordination increases significantly near the interface, accompanied by a large number of recrystallized grains, which has a positive impact on the comprehensive performance of the materials.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 455
Lucie Pilsová ◽  
Jakub Horváth ◽  
Vladimír Mára

This paper describes the influence of technological treatments (i.e., bending or welding) on the structural stability of SUPER304H austenitic steel used in reheaters and superheaters in fossil fuel power plants. Although the worldwide trend is transitioning to green power sources, the lifetime of existing power plants has to be prolonged until the transition is complete. Experimental material was tested in as-received state (straight tubes), bends, and homogeneous weld joints. Part of the specimens was solution-annealed after the technological operation. Afterwards, all the samples were thermally aged in furnace (650, 675 and 700 °C) for 7560–20,000 h. For comparison, bent specimens were placed at experimental sites on an operating powerplant for 10,000+ h. The long-term aging causes the formation of Cr-based carbides on the grain boundaries along with the Fe-Cr sigma phase. Combination of elevated temperature and residual stress accelerates formation of the sigma phase. This can be prevented by solution-annealing after bending. Mechanical properties were evaluated by Vickers hardness and tensile tests. The microstructure was observed using light optical microscopy (LOM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with the energy-dispersive X-ray detector (EDXS). Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) were used to characterize the brittle phases.

JOM ◽  
2022 ◽  
Christopher B. Finfrock ◽  
Diptak Bhattacharya ◽  
Brady N. L. McBride ◽  
Trevor J. Ballard ◽  
Amy J. Clarke ◽  

AbstractThe individual effects of strain rate and temperature on the strain hardening rate of a quenched and partitioned steel have been examined. During quasistatic tests, resistive heating was used to simulate the deformation-induced heating that occurs during high-strain-rate deformation, while the deformation-induced martensitic transformation was tracked by a combination of x-ray and electron backscatter diffraction. Unique work hardening rates under various thermal–mechanical conditions are discussed, based on the balance between the concurrent dislocation slip and transformation-induced plasticity deformation mechanisms. The diffraction and strain hardening data suggest that the imposed strain rate and temperature exhibited dissonant influences on the martensitic phase transformation. Increasing the strain rate appeared to enhance the martensitic transformation, while increasing the temperature suppressed the martensitic transformation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 355 ◽  
pp. 01004
Jiaqi Xiang ◽  
Qijie Feng ◽  
Junchao Cheng ◽  
Lei Lu ◽  
Junyu Huang ◽  

The electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) characterization of irradiated Al-B shows that there is a high concentration defect region around the borides. Nanoscale speckle particles were successfully prepared on the surface of Al-B before and after irradiation, and then the mesoscale strain during in-situ deformation was obtained by digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The results shows that slip band bypass such an area through cross slips with slip band deflection. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicates that abundant helium bubbles exist in the deflected slip band area pinning the dislocations.

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