Braking System
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2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-24
Liuwang Kang ◽  
Haiying Shen

For a modern vehicle, if the sensor in a vehicle anti-lock braking system (ABS) or controller area network (CAN) bus is attacked during a brake process, the vehicle will lose driving direction control and the driver’s life will be highly threatened. However, current methods for detecting attacks are not sufficiently accurate, and no method can provide attack mitigation. To ensure vehicle ABS security, we propose an attack detection method to accurately detect both sensor attack (SA) and CAN bus attack in a vehicle ABS, and an attack mitigation strategy to mitigate their negative effects on the vehicle ABS. In our attack detection method, we build a vehicle state space equation that considers the real-time road friction coefficient to predict vehicle states (i.e., wheel speed and longitudinal brake force) with their previous values. Based on sets of historical measured vehicle states, we develop a search algorithm to find out attack changes (vehicle state changes because of attack) by minimizing errors between the predicted vehicle states and the measured vehicle states. In our attack mitigation strategy, attack changes are subtracted from the measured vehicle states to generate correct vehicle states for a vehicle ABS. We conducted the first real SA experiments to show how a magnet affects sensor readings. Our simulation results demonstrate that our attack detection method can detect SA and CAN bus attack more accurately compared with existing methods, and also that our attack mitigation strategy almost eliminates the attack’s effects on a vehicle ABS.

Jeremy S Liang

Automotive troubleshooting process integrates repairing activities that are executed through auto professionals when they note phenomenon or conditions and determine about inspections, instructions, or checks, so as to tackle the trouble that affects a car. This study is focused on the knowledge representation for the aim of decision making in automotive troubleshooting process for automotive braking system. To reach this purpose, there are three phases followed: (1) a knowledge representation with procedural mode is investigated from an aspect of decision making; (2) a simple, instinctive, and efficient architecture of automotive knowledge formalization is presented; (3) an approach to generate troubleshooting procedures is defined. A new form, named diagram of expanded transformation (DoET), to represent knowledge and depict three fundamental tiers of decision making in the present or future disposal: processing strategy, quantity, and inapplicability. The approach can be also utilized manually to create DoETs from auto repair manuals (ARMs) or to build them spontaneously applying the messages feasible on workshop lists regarding single, multi-tier troubleshooting processes. The DoETs with auto repair manuals for auto braking system is validated. The acquired model can be utilized as a base structure for troubleshooting assisted systems generation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 72-79
Alexander Nazarov ◽  
Vitalii Kashkanov ◽  
Roman Gumenyuk ◽  
Evgenui Kotik ◽  

The article considers the change of the radius of the instantaneous center of rotation of a car moving along a curved trajectory during braking, taking into account the lateral input of the wheels of both axles of cars, both equipped with electronic tracking systems and not equipped with such. A criterion for assessing the controllability of cars moving on a curved trajectory in a braked state, by comparing the ratio of the current speed of the car to the longitudinal base with the ratio of the coefficients of lateral tire input to the product of the longitudinal base of the car, mass and cosines. It is established that the radius of instantaneous rotation of the longitudinal axis of the car moving along a curved trajectory during braking depends on the speed of the center of mass of the car, the coefficient of axle distribution of braking force, physical characteristics of applied tires, steering wheel angle and design and weight parameters. As a result, it allows you to set controllability. The authors obtained dependences that will create new algorithms for the operation of modern electronic control systems for stabilizing the longitudinal axis of a braked car, taking into account the speed of the car, its design and weight characteristics, the main characteristics of its braking system (coefficient of axle braking force distribution), physical characteristics used tires on wheels and connect them to the angles of the steered wheels, controlling the deviation of the longitudinal axis, which allows the driver to maintain the possibility of quite sharp maneuvers directly in the braking process, moving along a curved trajectory.

Fauzi Ahmad ◽  
Mohd Hanif Che Hassan ◽  
Ahmad Kamal Mat Yamin ◽  
Nur Rashid Mat Nuri

This paper describes the design of an antilock braking system (ABS) control for a passenger vehicle that employs an electronic wedge brake (EWB). The system is based on a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) vehicle dynamic traction model, with the EWB acting as the brake actuator. The developed control structure, known as the Self-Tuning PID controller, is made up of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller that serves as the main feedback loop control and a fuzzy supervisory system that serves as a tuner for the PID controller gains. This control structure is generated through two structures, namely FPID and SFPID, where the difference between these two structures is based on the fuzzy input used. An ABS-based PID controller and a fuzzy fractional PID controller developed in previous works were used as the benchmark, as well as the testing method, to evaluate the effectiveness of the controller structure. According to the results of the tests, the performance of the SFPID controller is better than that of other PID and FPID controllers, being 10% and 1% faster in terms of stopping time, 8% and 1% shorter in terms of stopping distance, 9% and 1% faster in terms of settling time, and 40% and 5% more efficient in reaching the target slip, respectively.

2021 ◽  
Vol 80 (6) ◽  
pp. 343-350
V. A. Nikonov ◽  
V. F. Zubkov ◽  
M. N. Tsibizov ◽  
I. V. Nazarov ◽  
D. V. Gorskiy

The article discusses technical solutions for the creation of an effective design of a brake system for high-speed longwheelbase platforms intended for the transport of containers, as well as for the development of a fundamentally new brake equipment for the pneumatic, electro-pneumatic and mechanical parts of the brake system. Modular braking equipment for the pneumatic and electro-pneumatic parts of the high-speed platform braking system, compactly located under the platform frame, provides technical compatibility when controlling platform brakes as part of not only a high-speed freight train of permanent formation, but also in trains for other purposes, regardless of the location of the platform in the composition of the train. The performance of the braking equipment of each platform in motion and in the parking lot is monitored using pressure sensors and an electronic unit that processes the readings of the sensors and transmits information to the locomotive via one of the wire lines of the electro-pneumatic brake. The brake rigging used on the high-speed platform is arranged in the design of three-axle bogies and provides doublesided pressing on the wheels with typical composite brake pads, automatic regulation and maintenance of the standard clearances between brake pads and wheels. The proposed promising technical solutions make it possible to continuously diagnose the parameters of the brakes of each platform as part of a permanent train, display them on the locomotive monitor and transmit them to the dispatch centers of the Russian Railways infrastructure. Thanks to this, the braking effciency can be increased and the safety of train traffc can be ensured while increasing the permissible travel speeds. In the modern concept of digitalization of the infrastructure of Russian Railways, which provides for the creation in 2021–2025 (and in the future until 2030) of cars in which intelligent technologies should be applied, the braking system of a high-speed platform can be considered as the basis for creating a digitally controlled train — one of the key elements of the digital railway.

Ataur Rahman ◽  
Sany Izan Ihsan

Road fatality and injury are a worldwide issue in the transportation industry. Road traffic accidents are becoming increasingly significant due to higher mortality, injury, and disability across the world, particularly in developing and transitional economies. Eighty-five percent of the total road traffic fatalities occur in developing nations, with Asia-Pacific accounting for roughly half of them. A variety of factors influence road safety, including technological, physical, social, and cultural factors. The purpose of this research was to design an autonomous braking system (AuBS). Using the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Intelligent System (ANFIS), a DC motor, sensors, and SAuBS have been developed to customize the traditional hydraulic braking system. The genetic algorithm has been developed to simulate the fundamental characteristics of the automotive braking system. The AuBS system goal is to slow the car without the driver's help infrequent braking when the vehicle is moving at slower speeds. When the ANFIS performance is compared to that of the AuBS model, it is discovered that the ANFIS performs roughly 15% better.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
M.N. Kailash ◽  
Sam Daniel.J ◽  
Nizarutheen .H

2021 ◽  
pp. 101-110
Oleksandr Safronov ◽  
Yurii Vodiannikov ◽  
Olena Makeieva

The lack of normative values of the actual coefficients in the new rules of HOST 34434-2018 do not allow to implement and determine the optimal characte-ristics of the brake according to pre-accepted conditions of braking efficiency (braking distance), which causes uncertainty in solving this problem. The uncertainty is that the choice of characteristics of the braking system of the freight wagon has to be done by searching a large number of options. In this regard, the paper provides tools for determining the actual pressing force of the brake pads on the wheels, which complies with the specified braking performance of the freight train. As a tool, universal formulas are used in the form of a power relationship between the actual force of the brake pads and the braking distance of the freight train. The coefficients of universal formulas are obtained on the basis of computer modeling. Numerous examples show that the error in the use of universal formulas in calculation studies does not exceed 1% compared with the calculation method according to HOST 34434-2018. The values of the actual coefficients depending on the axial load of the wagon and the speed at which the braking distances of the freight train satisfy the normative minimum allowable values are given. It is shown that calculation studies performed according to the universal formulas in the EXCEL environment allows to fully automating the computational process. A method for determining the gear ratio of the brake lever of a freight wagon, according to which the specified braking efficiency is performed, is proposed. The proposed procedure allows you to perform a variety of studies to select the optimal parameters of the braking system of freight wagons that meet the specified requirements of braking efficiency, and greatly facilitates the calculation studies. Key words: аctual coefficient, braking distance, speed, axial load, power dependence, coefficients, gear ratio.

Mădălin-Florin POPA ◽  
Bogdan Manolin JURCHIȘ

Today's commercial vehicles work in a very competitive environment, in an extremely active economic market and the requirements for the delivered performance make it imperative to study in detail each component element. In practice, all these aspects are found in the process of wearing the elements of different systems. Moreover, major changes are expected for the near future of motor vehicles in order to improve the ecological balance both by reducing the pollutant emissions of the propellants and by improving the percentage of recyclability and reduction of waste from maintenance (liquids and solutions such as oils, antifreeze or solutions with different detergents). In order to identify solutions to improve the mentioned problems, the current study analyses the types of wear identified in the elements of the braking system of commercial vehicles and their main factors of influence. The study is based on data obtained during analysis during operation for a number of trucks with different configurations.

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