Autonomous Braking System: for Automobile Use

Ataur Rahman ◽  
Sany Izan Ihsan

Road fatality and injury are a worldwide issue in the transportation industry. Road traffic accidents are becoming increasingly significant due to higher mortality, injury, and disability across the world, particularly in developing and transitional economies. Eighty-five percent of the total road traffic fatalities occur in developing nations, with Asia-Pacific accounting for roughly half of them. A variety of factors influence road safety, including technological, physical, social, and cultural factors. The purpose of this research was to design an autonomous braking system (AuBS). Using the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Intelligent System (ANFIS), a DC motor, sensors, and SAuBS have been developed to customize the traditional hydraulic braking system. The genetic algorithm has been developed to simulate the fundamental characteristics of the automotive braking system. The AuBS system goal is to slow the car without the driver's help infrequent braking when the vehicle is moving at slower speeds. When the ANFIS performance is compared to that of the AuBS model, it is discovered that the ANFIS performs roughly 15% better.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (11) ◽  
pp. 6439
Juan Diego Febres ◽  
Miguel Ángel Mariscal ◽  
Sixto Herrera ◽  
Susana García-Herrero

Road traffic accidents are currently between the seventh and tenth leading cause of death in the world, with approximately 1.35 million people killed per year. Despite extensive efforts by governments, according to the World Health Organization, road accidents still cause far too many deaths, especially among pedestrians, cyclists and two-wheel motor vehicle riders, who together account for almost 50% of road traffic fatalities. In particular, Spain had 410,974 traffic accidents between 2016 and 2019, involving 722,516 vehicles and 61,177 pedestrians with varying degrees of injury. This study uses the Bayesian network method to understand how the pedestrians’ responsibility and actions at the time of the traffic accident affect the injury suffered by said pedestrian, also considering the variables of the road infrastructure and vehicles at the accident site. The results confirm that the variables linked to the unsafe behavior of pedestrians, and their responsibility in traffic accidents, increase the risk of suffering serious or fatal injuries during an accident; for example, if a pedestrian is distracted this increases his/her probability of suffering a severe injury (27.86%) with respect to not being distracted (20.73%). Conditions related to traffic in high-speed areas, areas with no or poor lighting, and areas lacking sidewalks, also record increases in pedestrian injury, as is the case in the age group of pedestrians over 60 years of age.

2016 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 163
MSc. Halim Kuliqi

Taking into account the fact that in the world the road traffic accidents happen very often and go up to very large numbers, which often are also very disturbing, then there is an indispensable need to study this problem, because without identifying the problem and its causes then it can neither be fought nor prevented.The significance of this paper lays on the presentation of some data regarding the number of accidents and their victims, the ways of compensation for the damage and the presentation of some measures in order to protect the victims of accidents from secondary victimization.This paper fills a scientific gap for victims of accidents and their way of compensation, which until now for the case of Kosovo has been not addressed significantly in terms of theory and practice also. For the presentation and the development of this issue have been used statistical method, comparative method and among others also the case study methods.In other words, the main purpose of this paper is to present data that expose the difficulties for the realization of the right of victims after suffering accidents and also to propose some norms that would protect the victims from secondary victimization, as victims after suffering a traffic accident may be hurt again until the realization of their demand for compensation according to the law.

2019 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 68-77
Ronald Fisa ◽  
Chola Nakazwe ◽  
Charles Michelo ◽  
Patrick Musonda

Background: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 1.24 million people die annually on the world’s roads, with 20-50 million sustaining non-fatal injuries. More than 85% (1.05 million) of the global deaths due to injuries occur in the developing world. Road traffic deaths and injuries are a major but neglected public health challenge that requires concerted efforts for effective and sustainable prevention. The objectives of the study were to estimate the incidence rate of death from RTAs, to determine factors associated with serious and fatal Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) and to determine which of the poisson models fit the count data better. Methods: Data was collected from Zambia Police (ZP), Traffic Division on accidents that occurred on the Great North Road (GNR) highway between Lusaka and Kapiri-Mposhi in Zambia from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2016. Results from standard Poisson regression were compared to those obtained using the Negative Binomial (NB), Zero-Truncated Negative Binomial (ZTNB) and the Zero-Truncated Poisson (ZTP) regression models. Diagnostic tests were used to determine the best fit model. The data was analysed using STATA software, version 14.0 SE (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). Results: A total of 1, 023 RTAs were analysed in which 1, 212 people died. Of these deaths, 82 (7%) were Juveniles and 1, 130 (93%) were adults. Cause of accident such as pedestrians crossing the road accounted for 30% (310/1,023) while 29% (295/1,023) were as a result of driver’s excessive speed. The study revealed that driving in the early hours of the day (1AM-6AM) as compared to driving in the night (7PM-12AM) had a significant increase in the incidence rate of death from RTAs, Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) of 2.1, (95% CI={1.01-4.41}), p-value=0.048. Results further showed that public transport as compared to private transport had an increased incidence rate of death from RTAs (IRR=5.65, 95% CI={2.97-10.73}), p-value<0.0001. The two competing models were the ZTP and the ZTNB. The ZTP had AIC=1304.55, BIC= 1336.55, whereas the ZTNB had AIC=742.25 and BIC=819.69. This indicated that the ZTNB with smaller AIC and BIC was the best fit model for the data. Conclusion: There is a reduced incidence of dying if one is using a private vehicle as compared to a public vehicle. Driving in the early hours of the day (1AM and 6AM) had an increased incidence of death from RTAs. This study suggests that when dealing with counts in which there are a few zeros observed such as in serious and fatal RTAs, ZTNB fits the data well as compared to other models.

Aaron Agbenyegah Agbo ◽  
Wen Feng Li ◽  
Lan Bo Zheng ◽  
Charles Atombo

Road traffic accidents are challenges the world is battling in recent times. Majority of increasing road fatalities occurs in developing countries. This study seeks to address part of the issues leading to mechanical failures and road traffic accidents in the developing countries with Ghana as a case study. The study model was validated with the use of a sample collected from 880 mechanics from six regions. The mechanics completed questionnaire measures of perception on used parts, brand new parts, mechanical failure, road accidents and demographic variables. In addition, observation and survey method were also used to collect the data on work quality. The result shows that mechanical failure and road traffic accident correlated positively with used parts and negatively correlated with brand new parts. The study model explained R2 = 0.46 and 0.65 of the variance in mechanical failure and road traffic accident respectively. The independent predictors of mechanical failure were age, gender, experience, perception about used parts and work quality. The predictors of road traffic accident were experience, mechanical failure, perception about brand new parts and work quality. We conclude that the mechanical failure and road traffic accidents could be attributed to non-use of genuine parts, poor work quality standard and poor supervision during and after repairs. Remedial measures addressing these issues could reduce road traffic accident in Ghana.

2019 ◽  
Vol 17 (3) ◽  
pp. 192-205 ◽  
A. V. Popov ◽  
U. M. Kaimakova ◽  
N. P. Stetsky

Road traffic accidents cause enormous material and moral damage both to the society as a whole and to individual citizens. According to the data, the Russian Federation is among countries with highest road traffic mortality rates within European Region of the World Health Organization.The objective of the study was to attempt to identify possible causes of high mortality rates from traffic accidents on the roads of the Russian Federation and to reveal ways to reduce those rates.To that purpose a survey of citizens of the Russian Federation who are driver’s license owners and who are experienced drivers was conducted in different regions of the country. The results identified low medical literacy in terms of provision of first aid to the injured persons as one of the causes.Other factors, potentially capable to reduce the number of fatalities in road traffic accidents, once their performance indicators improve, have also been considered. Those indicators comprise time of arrival of ambulance crews at the site of an accident with enough medical equipment and medicines, interaction of emergency services, growth of efficiency of training in providing primary medical care at driving schools.

2020 ◽  
Vol 11 (SPL1) ◽  
pp. 187-191
Anjankar Ashish P ◽  
Anjankar Vaibhav P ◽  
Anjankar Anil J ◽  
Kanyal Lata

COVID 19 is undeniably one of the deadliest diseases that humanity has ever seen. It continues to affect the lives and livelihood of people appallingly across the world. Maximum discussions focus towards the apprehension of catching the infection, dwelling in homes, overpopulated nursing homes and shut down of all kinds. But, here let’s discuss the positive side of COVID 19 pandemic.As COVID 19 has spread its influence all over the world, affected countries have either announced lockdown or have implemented severe restrictions in their respective countries. Because of this, everyone dwells in their homes. Thus, exercising social distancing and functioning from home. All of the above is directed at restricting the transmission of coronavirus and expectantly ostracising the fatality from COVID 19. These transformations have also brought about some unanticipated emanations; some good things have come out of the pandemic as well. Positive effects of COVID 19 are seen on reduced road traffic, and road traffic accidents lowered levels of air pollution which has to lead to lowered heart attack rates and rejuvenating environment. Crime rates have fallen, and expenses are reduced in most places. Community action, communication amongst families, behaviour, sanitation, hygiene, online and distance education has positively impacted by COVID 19 pandemic. COVID 19 despite a bane for humans, can be thought of a boon for living beings. The habitats and elements have been purified with the stringent use of petrochemical products. To breathe fresh air and to consume purified water is a boon by itself. Now, it is time for humans to lead a caring life to every bounty bestowed on them by Nature. This thoughtful and considerate life will give hope for a healthy, stress-free life.

Lakshmi R. Kalbandkeri ◽  
Boramma G. ◽  
Shreeshail Ghooli

Background: Road traffic injuries claim more than 1.25 million lives each year and have a huge impact on health and development. They are the leading cause of death among young people aged between 15 and 29 years globally. In the South East Asian region of the World Health Organization, India alone accounted for 73 percent of these Road traffic accidents (RTA) burden. The importance of road safety measures needs to be emphasized in the prevention of the road traffic accidents. The objectives of the study were to assess the knowledge and practice of road safety measures among undergraduate medical students.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 310 medical undergraduates of M.R. Medical College from 1st September to 1st October 2016. Data was collected using pre-tested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Statistical analysis was done using relevant statistical tests.Results: Out of the 310 students 54.19% were males and 45.81% were females. 90.9% of the participants had driving licence, 32.1% of the students had taken training for driving the car and 66% of the students did not wear helmet. Female students had high knowledge of the road safety measures when compared to male students.Conclusions: The overall knowledge of road safety measures was high among the study participants. Regarding practice behaviours they were not desirable like practice of wearing helmet and exceeding speed limit. Undertaking proper road safety measures are the best available interventions to curb the epidemic of RTA.

2020 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. 71-78
Abdolmajid Rahmani Daranjani ◽  
Mahmoud Rezaeizadeh ◽  

Background: Road traffic accidents are currently among the most essential public health issues. According to the World Health Organization, given the rapid growth of road transport globally, road traffic accidents could be the third leading cause of death and disability in the world by 2020. This article examined the role of the human factor in road accidents during the Nowruz holidays, as a major cultural event in Iran. Materials and Methods: We explored the data of road accidents that occurred in Nowruz in 2016 and 2017 in Iran. Traffic accident data concerning the Nowruz holidays of 2016 and 2017 were collected by census method of sampling and based on the report of highway police. Additionally, the frequency of these accidents was analyzed according to travel time, accident type, gender, age, education, and vehicle type in different provinces. Results: The present study findings suggested that among human factors affecting Nowruz accidents in 2016 and 2017, the highest frequency belonged to unnecessary speeding. As in 2016 and 2017, it was the main responsible characteristic for 56.42% and 55.01% of accidents, respectively. In Nowruz 2016, the provinces of Tehran, Khorasan Razavi, Isfahan, Fars, and Khuzestan; in Nowruz 2017, the provinces of Tehran, Isfahan, Khorasan Razavi, Fars, and Gilan encountered the highest rates of accidents leading to injuries and deaths. Conclusion: To control unnecessary speeding and regulations disregard, planning for culturizing and the community-level education are suggested. Besides, increasing the quality and intelligence of vehicles and the construction of sliders, vertical lines on the road, warning signs, and billboards could help reduce the rate of accidents. Creating a working group of experts in psychology, traffic, etc., to study the pathology of dangerous behaviors, useless haste, and disregard for regulations and providing solutions could also be effective.

Iryna Tkachenko ◽  
Tetyana Lytvynenko ◽  
Dmitry Prusov ◽  
Lina Hasenko

The work is devoted to placement of streets and urban roads greening elements. The statistics of the road traffic fatalities rate as a result of ride on obstruction, in particular a tree in Ukraine, Poland, the USA, Denmark, have been analyzed. An unsatisfactory situation in Ukraine was confirmed, where the accident rate on roads with a fatal outcome is almost 10 times higher than in the safest countries of the world. The main functions of the streets and urban roads greening elements are generalized. There are: environmental protection (noise absorption, air purification from exhaust gases and pollination); decorating (creation of space for satisfaction of esthetic requirements of a person); accentuating; barrier etc. The greening elements of Ukraine streets and urban roads are classified and compared with the classifications of Queensland (Australia) and Poland. Current placement of greening elements in Poltava (Ukraine) streets was analyzed and the main disadvantages of placing greening elements were revealed. The normative requirements for the street and urban road greening elements placement in Ukraine, Queensland (Australia), Poland, Sweden, Denmark have been analyzed. Existing placement of the street and urban road greening elements in countries with high level of traffic safety were researched and the ways of improvement of existing street greening in Ukraine was found.

Ruth Kaanto ◽  
John Kagira ◽  
Kenneth Waititu ◽  
Maina Ngotho ◽  
Naomi Maina ◽  

Background: Wound management is a serious global health problem. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients presenting with septic wounds in selected hospitals in Kajiado County, Kenya, and their association with selected factors.Methods: We purposively sampled 182 patients with septic wounds and collected data using questionnaires whose statistical relationship between various patients' characteristics, including the data collected Likert-scale design was assessed.Results: A majority (73.1%) of the patients presented with one wound. Most (54.4%) of the wounds were located on the lower limbs and mainly (23.1%) caused by road traffic accidents. The majority of the wounds had lasted for 1-2 weeks at the time of presentation, and the wound sizes were mainly >11 mm. We found a significant association (p<0.05) between number of wounds and age, marital status, and highest education level. The wound causes were significantly associated with gender, age, occupation, and sub-county of residence. Wound duration was significantly associated with understanding prescribed medication, adherence to dosage, water source, alcoholism, and cigarette smoking. Wound improvement was significantly associated with patients' understanding of the prescribed medication, adherence to dosage and water source, alcoholic status, and cigarette smoking.Conclusions: Individual patient, social and cultural factors were associated with septic wounds characteristics, suggesting that addressing them at the individual level using proper hygiene and cleanliness at home and workplaces is key. Policies to reduce traffic accidents, increase literacy, and promote healthcare access need to be promoted to reduce the wound sepsis burden.  

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