control structure
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2022 ◽  
Vol 121 ◽  
pp. 105036
Author(s):  
Maria Badar ◽  
Iftikhar Ahmad ◽  
Aneeque Ahmed Mir ◽  
Shahzad Ahmed ◽  
Adeel Waqas

Author(s):  
Feipeng Wang ◽  
Diana Filipa Araújo ◽  
Yan-Fu Li

The recent social trends and accelerated technological progress culminated in the development of autonomous vehicles (AVs). Reliability assessment for AV systems is in high demand before its market launch. In safety-critical systems (SCSs) such as AV systems, the reliability concept should be broadened to consider more safety-related issues. In this paper, reliability is defined as the probability that the system performs satisfactorily for a given period of time under stated conditions. This paper proposes a reliability assessment framework of AV, consisting of three main stages: (i) modeling the safety control structure through the Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes (STAMP); (ii) mapping the control structure and functional relationships to a directed acyclic graph (DAG); and (iii) construct a Bayesian network (BN) on DAG to assess the system reliability. The fully automated (level 5) vehicle system is shown as a numeric example to illustrate how this suggested framework works. A brief discussion on involving human factors in systems to analyze lower levels of automated vehicles is also included, demonstrating the need for further research on real case studies.


2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 361-364
Author(s):  
Budiman Rosyadi Nasution

This study aims to examine the sales accounting information system implemented by PT Daihatsu Astra Motor Sisingamangaraja. Then it can be identified whether the information system has been implemented according to the right internal control structure or not and to determine the company's development through financial ratios that are limited to the sales department. This type of research is a case study, which contains exposure or relevant data from the results of research on the object. Qualitative methods are used in flowchart analysis and quantitative methods are used to calculate financial ratios that are limited to sales. Primary data is data that comes from the original source and is collected specifically for the purposes of the research being conducted. Secondary data is data produced by companies such as financial statements and accounting records. Data collection methods are interviews and direct observation. The results of this study are overall PT Daihatsu Astra Motor Sisingamangaraja has carried out car sales activities, spare parts / spare parts and service services with an accounting information system in accordance with the components of the internal control structure model. The majority of transactions that occurred at PT Daihatsu Astra Motor Sisingamangaraja actually decreased, this was due to the author's limitations in obtaining related financial statement information. Thus, it can be concluded that the accounting information system applied by the company is mostly appropriate and effective because it is appropriate so that it can support internal sales control.


Author(s):  
SHARIL IZWAN HARIS ◽  
Fauzi Ahmad ◽  
Mohd Hanif Che Hassan ◽  
Ahmad Kamal Mat Yamin ◽  
Nur Rashid Mat Nuri

This paper describes the design of an antilock braking system (ABS) control for a passenger vehicle that employs an electronic wedge brake (EWB). The system is based on a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) vehicle dynamic traction model, with the EWB acting as the brake actuator. The developed control structure, known as the Self-Tuning PID controller, is made up of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller that serves as the main feedback loop control and a fuzzy supervisory system that serves as a tuner for the PID controller gains. This control structure is generated through two structures, namely FPID and SFPID, where the difference between these two structures is based on the fuzzy input used. An ABS-based PID controller and a fuzzy fractional PID controller developed in previous works were used as the benchmark, as well as the testing method, to evaluate the effectiveness of the controller structure. According to the results of the tests, the performance of the SFPID controller is better than that of other PID and FPID controllers, being 10% and 1% faster in terms of stopping time, 8% and 1% shorter in terms of stopping distance, 9% and 1% faster in terms of settling time, and 40% and 5% more efficient in reaching the target slip, respectively.


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