Power Relationship
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Rebecca J. Lewis

Thorlief Schjelderup-Ebbe's seminal paper on the ‘pecking’ order of chickens inspired numerous ethologists to research and debate the phenomenon of dominance. The expansion of dominance to the broader concept of power facilitated disentangling aggression, strength, rank and power. Aggression is only one means of coercing other individuals, and can sometimes highlight a lack of power. The fitness advantages of aggression may only outweigh the costs during periods of uncertainty. Effective instruments of power also include incentives and refusals to act. Moreover, the stability of the power relationship might vary with the instruments used if different means of power vary in the number and types of outcomes achieved, as well as the speed of accomplishing those outcomes. In well-established relationships, actions or physiological responses in the subordinate individual may even be the only indicator of a power differential. A focus on strength, aggression and fighting provides an incomplete understanding of the power landscape that individuals actually experience. Multiple methods for constructing hierarchies exist but greater attention to the implications of the types of data used in these constructions is needed. Many shifts in our understanding of power were foreshadowed in Schjelderup-Ebbe's discussion about deviations from the linear hierarchy in chickens. This article is part of the theme issue ‘The centennial of the pecking order: current state and future prospects for the study of dominance hierarchies’.

2022 ◽  
pp. 520-529
Anandajit Goswami ◽  
Sampurna Goswami ◽  
Ashutosh Senger

The main focus of this article is to critically analyse the associations between crime against women, gender neutrality and attainment of SDG 5 within the multicultural complex context of India. The article argues that to achieve gender equality and neutrality, changes must be made at the level of policy that empowers not only women but also the other genders. This has to be mainstreamed within policy making, by institutions and someday as a part of CSR through the creation of a shared value approach. The article argues that gender equality is not just about women's empowerment but also about empowering all other genders. For making its case, this article gives a detailed analysis of women's empowerment laws and goes on to make a case for the gender equality and neutrality by challenging the binary of man versus woman. The article makes a narrative about the imperative need of pushing gender neutrality in order to attain SDG-5 and sustainability in the middle of the unequal power relationship within every segment and sector of societies with complex cultural, class, caste divide and other inequities.

2021 ◽  
Vol 37 (4) ◽  
pp. 25-34
S. Cheberyachko ◽  
L. Tretiakova ◽  
Yu. Cheberyachko

Purpose. The optimum length choice of the headband insert for a dust filter respirator. Design/methodology/approach. The method of experimental planning has been applied to determine the interpolation (regression) and optimisation dependencies of the filter respirator process. The dominant variables for the respirator were selected based on experimental studies.  Input controlled variables for mathematical model are length of tape insertion and headband tension force, output parameter is volume of contaminated air suction under face mask. A regression power relationship between the variables has been established. The recall function was approximated by a second-order non-linear mathematical model. The method of least squares was applied in determining the coefficients at the control variables. Regression dependencies and additional constraints on protective and ergonomic requirements have been used in the optimisation calculations. Conclusions. The solution of the set tasks were the following results: the nonlinear mathematical model more adequately characterizes the respirator use process compared to the linear model of the first order. Relative error between experimental and calculated values of air intake does not exceed 0.6 %. The optimization task is formulated with the regression model. The target function and constraints have been defined with safety and ergonomic requirements. The target function does not have an extremum within the defined constraints. The optimum insertion length was determined graphically and was 2–3.2 cm, the headband tension force does not exceed 5 H With this parameter. Research limitations/consequences. The proposed method is universal in determining the optimum parameters for all types of personal protective equipment. Practical implications: the choice of respirator design parameters can be made using experimentation-surface fitting. Originality/value. The proposed method makes it possible to decline heuristic design methods and establish analytical relationships between the requirements and parameters of individual elements of personal protective equipment.

2021 ◽  
pp. 101-110
Oleksandr Safronov ◽  
Yurii Vodiannikov ◽  
Olena Makeieva

The lack of normative values of the actual coefficients in the new rules of HOST 34434-2018 do not allow to implement and determine the optimal characte-ristics of the brake according to pre-accepted conditions of braking efficiency (braking distance), which causes uncertainty in solving this problem. The uncertainty is that the choice of characteristics of the braking system of the freight wagon has to be done by searching a large number of options. In this regard, the paper provides tools for determining the actual pressing force of the brake pads on the wheels, which complies with the specified braking performance of the freight train. As a tool, universal formulas are used in the form of a power relationship between the actual force of the brake pads and the braking distance of the freight train. The coefficients of universal formulas are obtained on the basis of computer modeling. Numerous examples show that the error in the use of universal formulas in calculation studies does not exceed 1% compared with the calculation method according to HOST 34434-2018. The values of the actual coefficients depending on the axial load of the wagon and the speed at which the braking distances of the freight train satisfy the normative minimum allowable values are given. It is shown that calculation studies performed according to the universal formulas in the EXCEL environment allows to fully automating the computational process. A method for determining the gear ratio of the brake lever of a freight wagon, according to which the specified braking efficiency is performed, is proposed. The proposed procedure allows you to perform a variety of studies to select the optimal parameters of the braking system of freight wagons that meet the specified requirements of braking efficiency, and greatly facilitates the calculation studies. Key words: аctual coefficient, braking distance, speed, axial load, power dependence, coefficients, gear ratio.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-30
J. Christopher Upton

In recent decades, the Taiwan judiciary has taken steps toward securing Indigenous people’s access to the justice system. These measures reflect a vision of access to justice framed narrowly on national courts and legal actors through the provision of free legal counsel, courtroom interpreters, and special court units dedicated to Indigenous people. These measures embrace a thin understanding of access to justice that overlooks important hurdles to both seeking and providing such access to Indigenous people. This article considers some of the key challenges of Indigenous people’s access to justice in Taiwan and the role of the judiciary in both perpetuating and addressing those challenges. It argues for a thicker understanding of access to justice that addresses the circumstances of contemporary Indigenous life and confronts the entrenchment of colonialism in the state framework. Field research in eastern Taiwan shows how aspects of normativity, spatiality, economics, order, language, and institutions, ensconced in a legal framework that reinforces an unequal power relationship between the state and Indigenous people, have shaped the character of access to the justice system and, in turn, continue to operate as obstacles to meaningful access to justice for Taiwan’s Indigenous people.

2021 ◽  
Shireen Morris

Indigenous peoples in Chile have suffered dispossession and discrimination by colonizing forces, like many Indigenous peoples globally, and did not have a fair say in the development of successive constitutions establishing new political systems on their land. In the October 2020 referendum, Chileans voted to create a new constitution. This presents an opportunity for Indigenous peoples to create a fairer power relationship with the Chilean state. For the first time, the constitutional convention includes a specific quota for 17 Indigenous representatives. This will enable Indigenous peoples to contribute to the constitutional design process. This report presents comparative examples of self-determinative institutional mechanisms that empower Indigenous peoples to be heard by and influence decision making in state institutions. The focus of the paper is on options for institutional structures that enable Indigenous representation, participation and consultation with respect to Indigenous peoples’ own affairs.

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 3500
Wahid Ali Hamood Altowayti ◽  
Norzila Othman ◽  
Husnul Azan Tajarudin ◽  
Arafat Al-Dhaqm ◽  
Syazwani Mohd Asharuddin ◽  

Due to the constant need to enhance water supply sources, water operators are searching for solutions to maintain water quality through leakage protection. The capability to monitor the day-to-day water supply management is one of the most significant operational challenges for water companies. These companies are looking for ways to predict how to improve their supply operations in order to remain competitive, given the rising demand. This work focuses on the mathematical modeling of water flow and losses through leak openings in the smart pipe system. The research introduces smart mathematical models that water companies may use to predict water flow, losses, and performance, thereby allowing issues and challenges to be effectively managed. So far, most of the modeling work in water operations has been based on empirical data rather than mathematically described process relationships, which is addressed in this study. Moreover, partial submersion had a power relationship, but a total immersion was more likely to have a linear power relationship. It was discovered in the experiment that the laminar flows had Reynolds numbers smaller than 2000. However, when testing with transitional flows, Reynolds numbers were in the range of 2000 to 4000. Furthermore, tests with turbulent flow revealed that the Reynolds number was more than 4000. Consequently, the main loss in a 30 mm diameter pipe was 0.25 m, whereas it was 0.01 m in a 20 mm diameter pipe. However, the fitting pipe had a minor loss of 0.005 m, whereas the bending pipe had a loss of 0.015 m. Consequently, mathematical models are required to describe, forecast, and regulate the complex relationships between water flow and losses, which is a concept that water supply companies are familiar with. Therefore, these models can assist in designing and operating water processes, allowing for improved day-to-day performance management.

2021 ◽  
Vol 41 (3) ◽  
pp. 404-412
Orit Bashkin

Abstract This essay considers accounts of the Dreyfus Affair published in the newspaper Thamarat al-Funun (founded 1875) during 1898 to demonstrate how Arab writers addressed the rights of minorities in Europe and examined failed emancipatory projects. Writing about the Dreyfus Affair allowed intellectuals in the Levant to reverse the power relationship between themselves and Europe and to comment on the kinds of politics that would ensure the equality before the law of the Jewish minority in Europe. These debates further illustrate that even before the shift to electoral politics in the Ottoman Empire (after 1908) and in postwar Arab nation-states, Arab writers were preoccupied with the relationship between statecraft and majority-minority relations. They argued that democratic institutions such as parliaments and courts of law were the best venues to safeguard the rights of religious communities whose mere existence was defined as a problem. Bashkin shows how Thamarat al-Funun pointed to phenomena that endangered religious communities, such as fanaticism, racism, abuse of power by the police and the military, and mob politics.

Andreea-Veridiana Farcasel-Jensen ◽  

A focus on discourse analysis, this study presents a particular interest in the power relationship artfully constructed by Charlotte P. Gilman in three dialogue instances in her most memorable short narrative, The Yellow Wallpaper. With the awareness of gender differences in mind in terms of how men and women use language, Gilman evinces the ways in which language could be a medium of silencing the other. Consequently, this paper carefully examines the protagonists’ discourses through J. L. Austin’s speech act theory and John Searle’s taxonomy of illocutionary acts. The corpus of the study consists of the utterances of the husband/doctor and of the wife/patient, and both the quantitative and qualitative research methods have been employed for the data analysis. The results have shown that the patriarchal discourse, originally dominated by representatives (opinions, facts) and directives (commands, orders, advices, and refusals), produces utterances meant to fabricate reality (erroneous diagnosis) and generate refusals, whereas the discourse of the other consists mainly of representatives- true statements and opinions -which contradict men’s reality in the journey to achieving self-assertion and selfexpression.

Geofluids ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Jianguo Wang ◽  
Ting Zuo ◽  
Xianglong Li ◽  
Zihao Tao ◽  
Jun Ma

In order to study the fractal characteristics of the pomegranate biotite schist under the effect of blasting loads, a one-dimensional SHPB impact test was carried out to test the dynamic compressive strength, damage morphology, fracture energy dissipation density, and other parameters of the rocks under different strain rates; besides, sieve tests were conducted to count the mass fractal characteristics of the crushed masses under different strain rates to calculate the fractal dimension of the crushed rock D . Finally, the relationships between fractal dimension and dynamic compressive strength, crushing characteristics, and energy dissipation characteristics were analysed. The results show that under different impact loads, the strain rate effect of the rock is significant and the dynamic compressive strength increases with the increasing strain rate, and they show a multiplicative power relationship. The higher the strain rate of the rock, the deeper the fragmentation and the higher the fractal dimension, and the fractal dimension and rock crushing energy density are multiplied by a power relationship. By performing the comparative analysis of the pomegranate biotite schist, a reasonable strain rate range of 78.75 s-1~82.51 s-1 and a reasonable crushing energy consumption density range of 0.78 J·cm-3~0.92 J·cm-3 were determined. This research provides a great reference for the analysis of dynamic crushing mechanism, crushing block size distribution, and crushing energy consumption of the roadway surrounding rock.

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