International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
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Published By Medip Academy

2320-6012, 2320-6071

Author(s):  
Amit Choubey ◽  
Rahul Dev Chauhan ◽  
Sourabh Kumar

Background: Musculoskeletal injuries of knee are commonly encountered in sportsmen during sports activities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice for evaluation of traumatic knee injuries and arthroscopic interventions. By knowing the pattern and burden of surgically significant injuries in sportsmen, the artificial intelligence (AI) software may be developed accordingly so that surgically significant injuries may be identified by the young radiologists. Methods: It was a retrospective study on MRI for knee injuries in sportsmen. The digital data from Radiology department at a zonal level hospital was analysed. The MRI findings were correlated with the arthroscopic records available. For surgically insignificant injuries, the literature was referred for the typical MRI findings of the injuries. Results: Of 272 cases of MRI knee, 74.3% cases were detected to have acute traumatic injuries. Among various types of injuries found in this study, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear (55.9%) was the commonest injury followed by medial meniscal tear (40%). 40 (19.8%) cases were found to have surgically significant MRI findings which were subsequently corroborated with knee arthroscopy.Conclusions: Since majority of soft tissue injuries of knee constitute ACL and meniscal tears, the industries involved in developing AI software for soft tissue injuries of knee, should primarily focus on identification of ACL and meniscal injuries. The AI software may also be helpful for the young radiologists in early training days in MRI for knee injuries and may also help in big scale research projects of post traumatic MRI knees.


Author(s):  
Biby Mary Kuriakose ◽  
Kavitha Krishnakumar

Background: General anesthesia is preferred during surgeries to reduce the pain stimuli in patients and to increase the precision of surgical procedure. Propofol is amongst the most widely used general anesthetic agent with limitation of induced pain during administration. Current study was conducted to compare the effect of intravenous pre-administration of various drugs in attenuating propofol induced pain.  Methods: A comparative observational study was conducted on patients of either sex and aged between 18-60 years. Patients were divided in three groups, who received intravenous lignocaine, dexamethasone and combination of lignocaine-dexamethasone respectively to attenuate propofol induced pain. Different variables like HR, SBP, DBP, MAP, RR SpO2 and any adverse events were monitored in all the patients.  Results: The 46.66% and 53.33% patients who received lignocaine and dexamethasone alone perceived propofol induced mild to moderate pain; while only 23.33% patients who received lignocaine and dexamethasone in combination perceived mild propofol induced pain. The propofol induced pain event was persistent in only 2 out of 30 patients after a time lapse of 30 seconds for the group receiving lignocaine and dexamethasone in combination. Whereas, the pain event was present even after time lapse of 30 seconds in 08 and 07 out of 30 patients of groups receiving lignocaine and dexamethasone alone.Conclusions: Pre-administration of lignocaine and dexamethasone in combination attenuated the propofol induced pain more significantly in comparison to single administration of mentioned drugs. No significant adverse events except perianal irritation were observed in some patients who received combination of lignocaine and dexamethasone intravenously.


Author(s):  
Mariyam S. ◽  
Haris P. ◽  
Sasi M. P. ◽  
Babu D. ◽  
Lakshmanan . ◽  
...  

Robotic surgery is a rapid advancement in the scientific strata of artificial intelligence and has evolved into a refined tool for the surgeons. Over the last 30 years, this field has evolved in leaps and bounds with wide applications in the field of surgery by improving the dexterity and accessibility for the surgeons in various array of major complicated cases. The surgical armamentarium has been strengthened by evolution of robotic surgery to an extent that man may be replaced by artificial intelligence-based robots in the operation theatre, thereby eliminating the possibility of human errors and limitations.


Author(s):  
Neeti Dutt ◽  
Sushil Sharma ◽  
Meena Sidhu

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has major implications for blood transfusion. There are uncertain patterns of demand, and transfusion institutions need to plan for reductions in donations and loss of crucial staff because of sickness and public health restrictions. A range of strategies need to be planned to maintain ongoing equitable access to blood for transfusion during the pandemic, in addition to providing new therapies such as convalescent plasma. The main role of transfusion institutions during this period, is the monitoring of supply and demand so that sufficient blood stocks are maintained to support ongoing critical needs. The main aim of our study was to study the impact of COVID-19 outbreak on blood transfusion services (BTS) and to identify the challenges faced by our blood center and mitigation strategies adopted to combat it.Methods: Total number of donations and total number of blood and its components issued were noted from the donor and issue registers respectively, both during the pre-COVID and COVID-19 pandemic and the results were compared thereafter. Various strategies were adopted during the COVID pandemic in order to maintain balance between demand and supply of blood and its products.Results: There has been sudden decrease in the number of blood donations in the month of April 2020 (35%) in the COVID pandemic as compared to pre-COVID time with percentage difference of 65%. This was followed by gradual decrease in the no. of donations in COVID pandemic when compared with donations in the pre-COVID time. The percentage difference in blood donation gradually improved over a period of time from 65% in April 2020 to 7% in April 2021. Similarly, no. of blood units issued also decreased from 1147 in April 2019 to 553 units in April 2020.Conclusions: The BTS need to provide an uninterrupted blood supply, and this stays true even in the face of a pandemic. The plan of action has to be started early so that the supply can be maintained and monitored effectively. Health-care workers being one of the main pillars in the fight against COVID-19 have to be supported and protected. 


Author(s):  
Harish P. ◽  
Sreedhar S. ◽  
Kunhikoyamu . ◽  
Namboothiri M. ◽  
Devi S. ◽  
...  

Artificial intelligence (AI) can be demonstrated as intelligence demonstrated by machines.AI research has gone through different phases like simulating the brain, modeling human problem solving, formal logic, large databases of knowledge and imitating animal behavior. In the beginning of 21st century, highly mathematical statistical machine learning has dominated the field, was found useful and considered in helping to solve many challenging problems throughout industry and academia. The domain was discovered and work was done on the assumption that human intelligence can be simulated by machines. These initiate some discussions in raising queries about the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings with human-like intelligence. Myth, fiction, and philosophy are involved in the creation of this field. The debates and discussion also point to concerns of misuse regarding this technology.  


Author(s):  
Prem Lal ◽  
Remya Ramachandran ◽  
P. T. James ◽  
Rajeevan K. ◽  
Aju Ravindran ◽  
...  

Nutrigenomics deals with the effect of foods and food constituents on gene expression. It is a new concept in disease prevention and cure. Nutrigenomics conveys how nutrients influence our body to express genes, whereas nutrigenetics refers to how our body responds to nutrients. The various bioactive food components can alter the gene expression mechanisms. But our actual knowledge is so insufficient that the only use of such information may help to satisfy our imagination. If science could arrive at some more precise facts, that would have vast applications in medicine.


Author(s):  
Anu Chandran ◽  
Varun Raghavan ◽  
Bhaskaran Chalil ◽  
Kamalasanan . ◽  
C. C. Velayudhan ◽  
...  

Nanotechnology is the use of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale for various purposes. Nanotechnology field of application is very much diverse which includes surface science, organic chemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, energy storage, engineering, microfabrication, and molecular engineering. Its medical application ranges from biological devices, nano-electronic biosensors, and to future biological machines. The main issue nowadays for nanomedicine involve understanding the issues related to toxicity and environmental impact of nanoscale materials. Lot more functionalities can be added to nanomaterials by interfacing them with biological structures. The size of nanomaterials is similar most biological molecules and so useful for both in vivo and in vitro biomedical research and applications. The integration of nanomaterials with biology had paved path to the development of diagnostic devices, contrast agents, analytical tools, physical therapy applications and drug delivery vehicles.


Author(s):  
Amit Singh ◽  
Reyaz Ahmed Untoo ◽  
Ourfa Ashraf Wani ◽  
Wasim Rashid

Background: The study was conducted to evaluate the role of fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) and spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in choroidal neo-vascularisation (CNV).Methods: This was a hospital based prospective study carried out in the post-graduate department of ophthalmology, SKIMS medical college, Bemina, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir. All patients diagnosed with CNV fulfilling the criteria during the study period w.e.f. October 2018 to March 2020 were enrolled. Visual acuity and pinhole test using Snellen’s chart for literate and E chart for illiterate patient, slit lamp biomicroscope for anterior segment examination, ophthalmoscopy, including stereoscopic examination of the posterior pole, 90D examination of the fundus, Intra-ocular pressure measurement, FFA and SD-OCT was done in these patients.Results: Diagnostic accuracy of OCT was observed with a sensitivity 79.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 67.3-90.7), specificity 84.3% (95% CI: 74.5-92.9), positive and negative predictive values 78.7% and 85.4%, respectively, (95% CI: 65.5-95.6) and (74.8-93.4) and diagnostic accuracy of FFA was observed with a sensitivity 81.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 70.6-93.5), specificity 82.31% (95% CI: 71.9-89.3), positive and negative predictive values 79.9% and 83.7%, respectively, (95% CI: 68.8-92.9) and (70.3-91.2).Conclusions: FFA is the gold standard procedure for screening ARMD and detection of dry ARMD, but OCT is more specific diagnostic tool in detecting early subretinal neovascular membrane and also to assess the extent, location and activity of the neovascular membranes. This study concludes that SDOCT is highly sensitive for identifying AMD, CNV, and CNV activity and due to its non-invasive nature with no adverse effects and less time consuming can be used as 1st line of diagnostic modality and FFA be reserved for cases where SD-OCT is not helpful.


Author(s):  
Florent J. Rafamatanantsoa ◽  
Armel M. A. Razanatsila ◽  
Miora H. R. Razanatsimba ◽  
Lina Rakotoson ◽  
Lea Raobela ◽  
...  

Background: Teenagers are defined by world health organization as persons between 10 and 19 years of age. When this generation has a sexual intercourse, it is considered to be early. The main aim of this investigation is to identify associated factors of precocious sexual intercourse.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the high schools in Antsirabe town among teenagers.Results: Among 636 teenagers, 19.8% are prematurely initiated. The median age of first sexual experience is 16 years of age. The average age for this first sexual experience takes place at 15.5 (1.4) years of age for boys and at 16.6 (1.2) years for girls. One kind of sociodemographic profile is associated to the first precocious sexual intercourse. Poor school performance, urban life, alcohol, tobacco and drug use are also significantly associated with this precocious sexual experience. From the relationship standpoint, 6= lack of sexual education by the head of household, the absence of religious diligence, the influence of customs, internet access and accession a social network are indeed associated to this problem.Conclusions: In order to meet these results, the ministry of public health should design on Facebook, education program about forward sexuality.


Author(s):  
Abhishek Golla ◽  
Parvaiz Kadloor ◽  
Rajashekar R. Gurrala ◽  
Kazi Jawwad Hussain ◽  
Kolli Sivadayal ◽  
...  

Background: Compared to older counterparts, a significant distinction has been found related to risk factors, clinical presentation, and prognosis of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in younger patients. To date, a lack of studies has been looked, specifically at-risk factors and angiographic profile of STEMI among younger patients; with this in mind, we conducted the present study.Methods: This hospital-based, cross-sectional, open-label study was carried out at Deccan College of Medical Sciences between April 2018 and December 2019. Patients under 40 years with the presentation of STEMI were included. All patients were subjected to electrocardiography, 2D echocardiography, and coronary angiogram. Baseline demographics, risk factors, and procedural characteristics were recorded.Results: Of 51 young STEMI patients, 41 (80.4%) were male and 10 (19.6%) were female. The most common risk factors associated with the development of STEMI in young patients were smoking (58.8%), followed by diabetes (45.1%), and dyslipidaemia (45.1%). Anterior wall MI was the most frequent presentation (84.3%). The left anterior descending artery was the most frequently (62.8%) involved vessel, followed by left circumflex artery (9.8%), and right coronary artery (5.9%).Conclusions: Insights gained from the study can aid in identifying clinical characteristics of STEMI in young patients, which may be beneficial to achieve appropriate and timely management. Further, the young population should be educated as to control modifiable risk factors and smoking cessation to prevent coronary artery disease since they belong to the highly productive group in the community.


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