damage prevention
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Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 307 ◽  
pp. 121770
Chengyuan Xu ◽  
Xinglin Yang ◽  
Chuan Liu ◽  
Yili Kang ◽  
Yingrui Bai ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Bianca Drepper ◽  
Brecht Bamps ◽  
Anne Gobin ◽  
Jos Van Orshoven

Abstract Background Spring frosts pose an important threat to orchard productivity in temperate zones and predictions of future occurrences do not exclude damaging events. However, there is no up-to-date and systematic comparison of the effectiveness and conditionality of the existing passive and active damage prevention strategies. This review seeks to answer the questions “How do the performances of spring frost damage reduction strategies in temperate fruit orchards compare?” and “How do environmental conditions affect frost damage reduction strategies in temperate fruit orchards?”. Methods and output The review covers on-site frost damage prevention mechanisms and interventions for the most important temperate pome, stone and citrus fruit trees as well as grapevine. Searches include the core collection and regional databases on the Web of Science platform, Scopus, as well as specialized libraries like Agris, Agricola, CAB Abstracts, Groenekennis and selected institutional websites. Included studies report on the effectiveness of at least one intervention in reducing spring frost damage or increasing temperatures in the field. The validity of the studies will be evaluated based on their risk of general research bias and on topic-specific, stakeholder co-designed validity criteria. Data will be extracted regarding the study setup (study design, location, characteristics of frosts) and the resulting temperature increase, crop development alteration and/or damage reductions. The effectiveness of interventions will be evaluated in terms of yields, damage to flowers, ambient temperature and/or crop development. An Evidence Atlas will identify general and geographic research gaps, as well as research trends. Meta-regression of effectiveness on environmental conditions will be attempted.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2095 (1) ◽  
pp. 012095
Guihong Pei ◽  
Jiecheng Song ◽  
Xiaolong Zhang

Abstract Casing damage in the process of oilfield development is a serious problem, which is affected by geological structure, production technology and many other factors. To prevent casing damage, it is necessary to master the space-time evolution law of reservoir in-situ stress field, to provide support for casing damage prevention. Based on the perseage-stress coupling theory, taking the actual reservoir block as the research object, the change law of the in-situ stress field in unconsolidated sandstone reservoir is obtained through the fluid-solid coupling numerical simulation of the reservoir, and the internal correlation between the stress field and casing damage is analysed. The research results provide theoretical guidance for the formulation of casing damage prevention measures in the research block.

Reza Jafari Nodoushan ◽  
Vidasadat Anoosheh ◽  
Mahdieh Shafiezadeh Bafghi ◽  
Mohammad Ali Barzegari ◽  
Ali Jafari ◽  

Introduction: Due to the important role of the mothers in the families, identifying their early maladaptive schema can help us identify the problems that lead to unhealthy life education and provide the necessary and appropriate training programs to improve them. This study uses group training to reform schema in improving mothers' individual and social mental health who consulted the social damage prevention center. The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of reforming schema on a mothers' problems. Methods: In this study, the quasi-experimental method was used. The study population was all the mothers who had parenting problems in the last two years and have consulted the social damage prevention center.  Nonrandom sampling was used for our statistical census. Therefore, 100 mothers at hand were selected nonrandomly, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was conducted on them as a pre-test. Then, 24 mothers who obtained the lowest scores were randomly divided into two groups: experimental and control, in each of which there were 12 participants. The experimental group received training in 10 sections for 90 minutes, while the control group did not receive any training. Afterward, a post-test was conducted for each group, and the results of the two groups were compared. Results:  A covariance analysis test was used to test the hyper hypotheses. The results showed a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in the individual's mental health and social mental health variables (p < 0.001). Thus, hypotheses 1 and 2 were approved in our study. In other words, the comparison of the average in two variables after the post-test of experimental and control groups showed that mothers trained according to reforming schem, had better social and mental health. With approximately 90%, it can be said that the training based on reforming schema effectively increases the social and individual health of the mothers challenging with parenting problems.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Evgeny Vladimirovich Kryukov ◽  
Alexander Vladimirovich Ivanov ◽  
Vladimir Olegovich Karpov ◽  
Valery Vasil’evich Alexandrin ◽  
Alexander Mikhaylovich Dygai ◽  

Objective. Aminothiols (glutathione (GSH), cysteinylglycine (CG)) may play an important role in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the possible association of these indicators with the severity of COVID-19 has not yet been investigated. Methods. The total content ( t ) and reduced forms ( r ) of aminothiols were determined in patients with COVID-19 ( n = 59 ) on admission. Lung injury was characterized by computed tomography (CT) findings in accordance with the CT0-4 classification. Results. Low tGSH level was associated with the risk of severe COVID-19 ( tGSH ≤ 1.5   μ M , mild vs. moderate/severe: risk   ratio   RR = 3.09 , p = 0.007 ) and degree of lung damage ( tGSH ≤ 1.8   μ M , CT < 2 vs. CT ≥ 2 : RR = 2.14 , p = 0.0094 ). The rGSH level showed a negative association with D-dimer levels ( ρ = − 0.599 , p = 0.014 ). Low rCG level was also associated with the risk of lung damage ( rCG ≤ 1.3   μ M , CT < 2 vs. CT ≥ 2 : RR = 2.28 , p = 0.001 ). Levels of rCG ( ρ = − 0.339 , p = 0.012 ) and especially tCG ( ρ = − 0.551 , p = 0.004 ) were negatively associated with platelet count. In addition, a significant relationship was found between the advanced oxidation protein product level and tGSH in patients with moderate or severe but not in patients with mild COVID-19. Conclusion. Thus, tGSH and rCG can be seen as potential markers for the risk of severe COVID-19. GSH appears to be an important factor to oxidative damage prevention as infection progresses. This suggests the potential clinical efficacy of correcting glutathione metabolism as an adjunct therapy for COVID-19.

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