chemotherapeutic agents
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Gangyang Wang ◽  
Lingling Cao ◽  
Yafei Jiang ◽  
Tao Zhang ◽  
Hongsheng Wang ◽  

Overexpression of the multidrug resistance (MDR)-related protein P-glycoprotein (PGP1), which actively extrudes chemotherapeutic agents from cells and significantly decreases the efficacy of chemotherapy, is viewed as a major obstacle in osteosarcoma chemotherapy. Anlotinib, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has good anti-tumor effects in a variety of solid tumors. However, there are few studies on the mechanism of anlotinib reversing chemotherapy resistance in osteosarcoma. In this study, cellular assays were performed in vitro and in vivo to evaluate the MDR reversal effects of anlotinib on multidrug-resistant osteosarcoma cell lines. Drug efflux and intracellular drug accumulation were measured by flow cytometry. The vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity of PGP1 was measured in the presence of a range of anlotinib concentrations. The protein expression level of ABCB1 was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis. Our results showed that anlotinib significantly increased the sensitivity of KHOSR2 and U2OSR2 cells (which overexpress PGP1) to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in a KHOSR2 xenograft nude mouse model in vivo. Mechanistically, anlotinib increases the intracellular accumulation of PGP1 substrates by inhibiting the efflux function of PGP1 in multidrug-resistant cell lines. Furthermore, anlotinib stimulated the ATPase activity of PGP1 but affected neither the protein expression level nor the localization of PGP1. In animal studies, anlotinib in combination with doxorubicin (DOX) significantly decreased the tumor growth rate and the tumor size in the KHOSR2 xenograft nude mouse model. Overall, our findings suggest that anlotinib may be useful for circumventing MDR to other conventional antineoplastic drugs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 270-279
Anup K Chakraborty ◽  
Harshita Tripathi ◽  
Sarita Karole ◽  
Kavita R Loksh

is a significant therapeutic plant has a place with family apocynaceae contains in excess of 70 distinct sorts of chemotherapeutic agents and alkaloids which help in treating different illnesses. For the most part, it is known as Vincarosea, Ammocallisrosea and Lochnerarosea. There are numerous or more than 400 alkaloids present in plant, which are used as flavor, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, fragrance, ingredients, food addictives, and pesticides. To develop a validated high performance thin layer chromatographic method for the analysis of leaves and flower extracts of Sample solutions were applied onto the plates with automatic TLC sampler Linomat V (Camag, Muttenz, Switzerland) and were controlled by WinCATS software. Plates were developed in 10 x 10cm twin trough glass chamber (Camag, Muttenz, Switzerland). A CAMAG TLC scanner was used for scanning the TLC plates. Pre-coated silica gel aluminium plates 60F254. For vincristine, simultaneous estimation of vincristine was performed by HPTLC on a silica gel plate using toluene-methanol-diethylamine (8.75: 0.75: 0.5, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The method was validated as per the ICH guidelines. The Rf value was found to be 0.76 for flower and 0.80 for leaves at 250 nm which shows the presence of vincristin in . In this research paper, a validated HPTLC Method has been developed for the analysis of leaves and flower extracts

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Faez Iqbal Khan ◽  
Fakhrul Hassan ◽  
Dakun Lai

Various metabolites identified with therapeutic mushrooms have been found from different sources and are known to have antibacterial, antiviral, and anticancer properties. Over thousands soil growth-based mushroom metabolites have been discovered, and utilized worldwide to combat malignancy. In this study, psilocybin-mushroom that contains the psychedelic compounds such as psilacetin, psilocin, and psilocybine were screened and found to be inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mprotease. It has been found that psilacetin, psilocin, and psilocybine bind to Mprotease with −6.0, −5.4, and −5.8 kcal/mol, respectively. Additionally, the psilacetin was found to inhibit human interleukin-6 receptors to reduce cytokine storm. The binding of psilacetin to Mprotease of SARS-CoV-2 and human interleukin-6 receptors changes the structural dynamics and Gibbs free energy patterns of proteins. These results suggested that psilocybin-mushroom could be utilized as viable potential chemotherapeutic agents for SARS-CoV-2.

Haematologica ◽  
2022 ◽  
Fieke W. Hoff ◽  
Anneke D. Van Dijk ◽  
Yihua Qiu ◽  
Chenyue W. Hu ◽  
Rhonda E. Ries ◽  

Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a fatal disease for at least 30% of patients, stressing the need for improved therapies and better risk stratification. As proteins are the unifying feature of (epi)genetic and environmental alterations, and are often targeted by novel chemotherapeutic agents, we studied the proteomic landscape of pediatric AML. Protein expression and activation levels were measured in 500 bulk leukemic patient samples and 30 control CD34+ samples, using the reverse phase protein arrays with 296 strictly validated antibodies. The multi-step “MetaGalaxy” analysis methodology was applied and identified nine protein expression signatures (PrSIG), based on strong recurrent protein expression patterns. PrSIGs were associated with cytogenetics and mutational state, and with both favorable or unfavorable prognosis. Analysis based on treatment (i.e., ADE vs. ADE plus bortezomib (ADEB)) identified three PrSIGs that did better with ADEB vs. ADE. When PrSIGs were studied in the context of genetic subgroups, PrSIGs were independently prognostic after multivariate analysis, suggesting a potential value for proteomics in combination with current classification systems. Proteins with universally increased (n=7) or decreased (n=17) expression were observed across PrSIGs. Expression of certain proteins significantly differentially expressed from normal could be identified, forming a hypothetical platform for personalized medicine.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xiaowei Xu ◽  
Liqun Jia ◽  
Xiaoran Ma ◽  
Huayao Li ◽  
Changgang Sun

As observed with other chemotherapeutic agents, the clinical application of platinum agents is a double-edged sword. Platinum-induced peripheral neuropathy (PIPN) is a common adverse event that negatively affects clinical outcomes and patients’ quality of life. Considering the unavailability of effective established agents for preventing or treating PIPN and the increasing population of cancer survivors, the identification and development of novel, effective interventions are the need of the hour. Plant-derived medicines, recognized as ideal agents, can not only help improve PIPN without affecting chemotherapy efficacy, but may also produce synergy. In this review, we present a brief summary of the mechanisms of platinum agents and PIPN and then focus on exploring the preventive or curative effects and underlying mechanisms of plant-derived medicines, which have been evaluated under platinum-induced neurotoxicity conditions. We identified 11 plant extracts as well as 17 plant secondary metabolites, and four polyherbal preparations. Their effects against PIPN are focused on oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, glial activation and inflammation response, and ion channel dysfunction. Also, ten clinical trials have assessed the effect of herbal products in patients with PIPN. The understanding of the molecular mechanism is still limited, the quality of clinical trials need to be further improved, and in terms of their efficacy, safety, and cost effectiveness studies have not provided sufficient evidence to establish a standard practice. But plant-derived medicines have been found to be invaluable sources for the development of natural agents with beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of PIPN.

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 149
David J. Wooten ◽  
Indu Sinha ◽  
Raghu Sinha

Survival rate for pancreatic cancer remains poor and newer treatments are urgently required. Selenium, an essential trace element, offers protection against several cancer types and has not been explored much against pancreatic cancer specifically in combination with known chemotherapeutic agents. The present study was designed to investigate selenium and Gemcitabine at varying doses alone and in combination in established pancreatic cancer cell lines growing in 2D as well as 3D platforms. Comparison of multi-dimensional synergy of combinations’ (MuSyc) model and highest single agent (HSA) model provided quantitative insights into how much better the combination performed than either compound tested alone in a 2D versus 3D growth of pancreatic cancer cell lines. The outcomes of the study further showed promise in combining selenium and Gemcitabine when evaluated for apoptosis, proliferation, and ENT1 protein expression, specifically in BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells in vitro.

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 147
Phatchanat Klaihmon ◽  
Chanchao Lorthongpanich ◽  
Pakpoom Kheolamai ◽  
Sudjit Luanpitpong ◽  
Surapol Issaragrisil

The hippo signaling pathway plays an essential role in controlling organ size and balancing tissue homeostasis. Its two main effectors, yes-associated protein (YAP) and WW domain-containing transcription regulator 1, WWTR1 or TAZ, have also been shown to regulate endothelial cell functions and angiogenesis. In this study, the functions of YAP and TAZ in human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were investigated by a loss-of-function study using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockdown (KD). Depletion of either YAP or TAZ reduced EPC survival and impaired many of their critical functions, including migration, invasion, vessel-formation, and expression of pro-angiogenic genes. Notably, TAZ-KD EPCs exhibited more severe phenotypes in comparison to YAP-KD EPCs. Moreover, the conditioned medium derived from TAZ-KD EPCs reduced the survivability of human lung cancer cells and increased their sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. The overexpression of either wild-type or constitutively active TAZ rescued the impaired phenotypes of TAZ-KD EPCs and restored the expression of pro-angiogenic genes in those EPCs. In summary, we demonstrate the crucial role of Hippo signaling components, YAP and TAZ, in controlling several aspects of EPC functions that can potentially be used as a drug target to enhance EPC functions in patients.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262544
Annalisa Trecarichi ◽  
Natalie A. Duggett ◽  
Lucy Granat ◽  
Samantha Lo ◽  
Afshan N. Malik ◽  

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a serious dose-limiting side effect of several first-line chemotherapeutic agents including paclitaxel, oxaliplatin and bortezomib, for which no predictive marker is currently available. We have previously shown that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with the development and maintenance of CIPN. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels and complex I enzyme activity as blood biomarkers for CIPN. Real-time qPCR was used to measure mtDNA levels in whole blood collected from chemotherapy- and vehicle-treated rats at three key time-points of pain-like behaviour: prior to pain development, at the peak of mechanical hypersensitivity and at resolution of pain-like behaviour. Systemic oxaliplatin significantly increased mtDNA levels in whole blood prior to pain development. Furthermore, paclitaxel- and bortezomib-treated animals displayed significantly higher levels of mtDNA at the peak of mechanical hypersensitivity. Mitochondrial complex I activity in whole blood was assessed with an ELISA-based Complex I Enzyme Activity Dipstick Assay. Complex I activity was not altered by any of the three chemotherapeutic agents, either prior to or during pain-like behaviour. These data demonstrate that blood levels of mtDNA are altered after systemic administration of chemotherapy. Oxaliplatin, in particular, is associated with higher mtDNA levels before animals show any pain-like behaviour, thus suggesting a potential role for circulating mtDNA levels as non-invasive predictive biomarker for CIPN.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-20
Ji Chen ◽  
Qiqi Tao ◽  
Zhichao Lang ◽  
Yuxiang Gao ◽  
Yan Jin ◽  

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. However, there is a lack of adequate means of treatment prognostication for HCC. Pyroptosis is a newly discovered way of programmed cell death. However, the prognostic role of pyroptosis in HCC has not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we generated a novel prognostic signature to evaluate the prognostic value of pyroptosis-related genes (PRGs) using the data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The accuracy of the signature was validated using survival analysis through the International Cancer Genome Consortium cohort ( n = 231 ) and the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University cohort ( n = 180 ). Compared with other clinical factors, the risk score of the signature was found to be associated with better patient outcomes. The enrichment analysis identified multiple pathways related with pyroptosis in HCC. Furthermore, drug sensitivity testing identified six potential chemotherapeutic agents to provide possible treatment avenues. Interestingly, patients with low risk were confirmed to be associated with lower tumor mutation burden (TMB). However, patients at high risk were found to have a higher count of immune cells. Consensus clustering was performed to identify two main molecular subtypes (named clusters A and B) based on the signature. It was found that compared with cluster B, better survival outcomes and lower TMB were observed in cluster A. In conclusion, signature construction and molecular subtype identification of PRGs could be used to predict the prognosis of HCC, which may provide a specific reference for the development of novel biomarkers for HCC treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 71
Hamed M. El-Shora ◽  
Aiah M. Khateb ◽  
Doaa B. Darwish ◽  
Reyad M. El-Sharkawy

Environmental pollution due to the continuous uncontrolled discharge of toxic dyes into the water bodies provides insight into the need to eliminate pollutants prior to discharge is significantly needed. Recently, the combination of conventional chemotherapeutic agents and nanoparticles has attracted considerable attention. Herein, the magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) were synthesized using metabolites of Aspergillus niger. Further, the surfaces of Fe3O4-NPs were functionalized using 3-mercaptoproionic acid as confirmed by XRD, TEM, and SEM analyses. A purified P. expansum laccase was immobilized onto Fe3O4/3-MPA-SH and then the developed immobilized laccase (Fe3O4/3-MPA-S-S-laccase) was applied to achieve redox-mediated degradation of different dyes. The Fe3O4/3-MPA-S-S-laccase exhibited notably improved stability toward pH, temperature, organic solvents, and storage periods. The Fe3O4/3-MPA-S-S-laccase exhibited appropriate operational stability while retaining 84.34% of its initial activity after 10 cycles. The catalytic affinity (Kcat/Km) of the immobilized biocatalyst was increased above 10-fold. The experimental data showed remarkable improvement in the dyes’ decolorization using the immobilized biocatalyst in the presence of a redox mediator in seven successive cycles. Thus, the prepared novel nanocomposite-laccase can be applied as an alternative promising strategy for bioremediation of textile wastewater. The cytotoxic level of carboplatin and Fe3O4-NPs singly or in combination on various cell lines was concentration-dependent.

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