conceptual design phase
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Drones ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 25
Charalampos Papadopoulos ◽  
Dimitrios Mitridis ◽  
Kyros Yakinthos

In this study, the conceptual design of an unmanned ground effect vehicle (UGEV), based on in-house analytical tools and CFD calculations, followed by flow control studies, is presented. Ground effect vehicles can operate, in a more efficient way, over calm closed seas, taking advantage of the aerodynamic interaction between the ground and the vehicle. The proposed UGEV features a useful payload capacity of 300 kg and a maximum range of 300 km cruising at 100 kt. Regarding the aerodynamic layout, a platform which combines the basic geometry characteristics of the blended wing body (BWB), and box wing (BXW) configurations is introduced. This hybrid layout aims to incorporate the most promising features from both configurations, while it enables the UGEV to operate under adverse flight conditions of the atmospheric boundary layer of the earth. In order to enhance the performance characteristics of the platform, both passive and active flow control techniques are studied and incorporated into the conceptual design phase of the vehicle. For the passive flow control techniques, the adaptation of tubercles and wing fences is evaluated. Regarding the active flow control techniques, a wide range of morphing technologies is investigated based on performance and integration criteria. Finally, stability studies are conducted for the proposed platform.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 739
Evelina Keibach ◽  
Homeira Shayesteh

This paper investigates the capabilities and limitations of different software tools simulating landscape design adaptability. The evaluation of tools is based on the ISO 25010 framework, which investigates software functionality, reliability, performance efficiency, usability, compatibility, and information quality. These quality characteristics of software are analysed during objective experiments where five software tools are used for a case study project at the conceptual design phase. These experiments reveal that the existing software tools for climate adaptation planning are focused on different aspects of climate adaptability, generating different types of information. Moreover, all tools deal with some limitations in terms of compatibility, performance efficiency, and functional operations. The ISO 25010 quality model provides a comprehensive framework to compare the capabilities of different software tools for climate adaptation planning. This paper is part of a wider study including an analysis of the needs of project stakeholders regarding climate adaptation software tools. However, this article focuses on technical capabilities of current climate adaptation software tools.

Aerospace ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 5
Raquel Alonso Castilla ◽  
Florent Lutz ◽  
Joël Jézégou ◽  
Emmanuel Bénard

In the context of reducing the environmental footprint of tomorrow’s aviation, Distributed Electric Propulsion (DEP) has become an increasingly interesting concept. With the strong coupling between disciplines that this technology brings forth, multiple benefits are expected for the overall aircraft design. These interests have been observed not only in the aerodynamic properties of the aircraft but also in the structural design. However, current statistical models used in conceptual design have shown limitations regarding the benefits and challenges coming from these new design trends. As for other methods, they are either not adapted for use in a conceptual design phase or do not cover CS-23 category aircraft. This paper details a semi-analytical methodology compliant with the performance-based certification criteria presented by the European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) to predict the structural mass breakdown of a wing. This makes the method applicable to any aircraft regulated by EASA CS-23. Results have been validated with the conventional twin-engine aircraft Beechcraft 76, the innovative NASA X-57 Maxwell concept using DEP, and the commuter aircraft Beechcraft 1900.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (24) ◽  
pp. 11592
Pietro Arena ◽  
Alessandro Del Nevo ◽  
Fabio Moro ◽  
Simone Noce ◽  
Rocco Mozzillo ◽  

The Water-Cooled Lead–Lithium Breeding Blanket (WCLL BB) is one of the two blanket concept candidates to become the driver blanket of the EU-DEMO reactor. The design was enacted with a holistic approach. The influence that neutronics, thermal-hydraulics (TH), thermo-mechanics (TM) and magneto-hydro-dynamics (MHD) may have on the design were considered at the same time. This new approach allowed for the design team to create a WCLL BB layout that is able to comply with different foreseen requirements in terms of integration, tritium self-sufficiency, and TH and TM needs. In this paper, the rationale behind the design choices and the main characteristics of the WCLL BB needed for the EU-DEMO are reported and discussed. Finally, the main achievements reached during the pre-conceptual design phase and some remaining open issues to be further investigated in the upcoming conceptual design phase are reported as well.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-17
A. Panahi ◽  
M. A. Vaziri Zanjani ◽  
Sh. Yousefi ◽  
N. Fazli ◽  
J. Aarabi

Abstract Estimation of the structural weight of an Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV) during conceptual design has proven to be a significant challenge mainly due to its unconventional configuration. We investigate development of a customised approach for structural weight estimation of UCAV based on statistical weight of the manned fighter’s components by applying minor modifications on weight formulations of fuselage, wing, empennage, power plant and landing gear. The modifications are applied by considering the corresponding differences between manned fighters and UCAVs such as manned requirements and mission variances. Some new empirical formulas for estimating the weight of UCAV’s components are proposed. Results for the empty weight estimation are validated against actual values of some well-known UCAVs. Moreover, the structural weight is validated against the benchmark UCAV case studies. The results show that the ratio of structural to takeoff weight for UCAVs is approximately between 20% to 10%. Finally, a generalised equation is developed for estimating the structural weight of UCAVs in conceptual design phase.

2021 ◽  
Vol 172 ◽  
pp. 112883
Sandra Varin ◽  
François Bonne ◽  
Christine Hoa ◽  
Jean-Marc Poncet ◽  
Louis Zani ◽  

2021 ◽  
Benjamin Lagemann ◽  
Tobias Seidenberg ◽  
Christoph Jürgenhake ◽  
Stein Ove Erikstad ◽  
Roman Dumitrescu

Low emission requirements exert increasing influence upon ship design. The large variety of technological options makes selecting systems during the conceptual design phase a difficult endeavor. To compare different solutions, we need to be able to exchange individual systems and directly evaluate their impact on the design’s economic and environmental performance. Based on the idea of model-based systems engineering, we present a modular synthesis approach for ship systems. The modules are coupled to a discrete event simulation and allow for a case-based assessment of system configurations. We apply this method to a high-speed passenger ferry and show how it can provide decision support for hydrogen- and battery-based system architectures.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (20) ◽  
pp. 9658
Ho Sung Park ◽  
Jae Kyung Shim ◽  
Woon Ryong Kim ◽  
Tae Woong Yun

As the kinematic structure of an articulated manipulator affects the characteristics of its motion, rigidity, vibration, and force transmissibility, finding the most suitable kinematic structure for the desired task is important in the conceptual design phase. This paper proposes a systematic method for generating non-isomorphic graphs of articulated manipulators that consist of a fixed base, an end-effector, and a two-degree-of-freedom (DOF) intermediate kinematic chain connecting the two. Based on the analysis of the structural characteristics of articulated manipulators, the conditions that must be satisfied for manipulators to have a desired DOF is identified. Then, isomorphism-free graph generation methods are proposed based on the concepts of the symmetry of a graph, and the number of graphs generated are determined. As a result, 969 graphs of articulated manipulators that have two-DOF non-fractionated intermediate kinematic chains and 33,438 graphs with two-DOF fractionated intermediate kinematic chains are generated, including practical articulated manipulators widely used in industry.

2021 ◽  
Jaakko Leppänen ◽  
Ville Valtavirta ◽  
Riku Tuominen ◽  
Antti Rintala ◽  
Unna Lauranto

Abstract The development of a small PWR for district heating applications has been started at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, and the pre-conceptual design phase was completed by the end of year 2020. The heating plant consists of one or multiple 50 MW reactor modules, operating on natural circulation at around 120°C temperature. This paper presents the neutronics design and fuel cycle simulations carried out using VTT’s Kraken computational framework. The reactor is operated without soluble boron, which together with low operating temperature and pressure brings certain challenges to the use of control rods and burnable absorber. The reactor core is loaded with 37 truncated AP1000-type fuel assemblies with 2.0–3.0% fuel enrichment and erbium burnable absorber. The resulting cycle length is around 900 days. The results show that the criteria set for stability, reactivity control and thermal margins are fulfilled. More importantly, it is concluded that the new Kraken framework is a viable tool for the core design task.

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