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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Chien-Liang Liu ◽  
You-Lin Tain ◽  
Yun-Chun Lin ◽  
Chien-Ning Hsu

ObjectiveThis study aimed to identify phenotypic clinical features associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) to predict non-recovery from AKI at hospital discharge using electronic health record data.MethodsData for hospitalized patients in the AKI Recovery Evaluation Study were derived from a large healthcare delivery system in Taiwan between January 2011 and December 2017. Living patients with AKI non-recovery were used to derive and validate multiple predictive models. In total, 64 candidates variables, such as demographic characteristics, comorbidities, healthcare services utilization, laboratory values, and nephrotoxic medication use, were measured within 1 year before the index admission and during hospitalization for AKI.ResultsAmong the top 20 important features in the predictive model, 8 features had a positive effect on AKI non-recovery prediction: AKI during hospitalization, serum creatinine (SCr) level at admission, receipt of dialysis during hospitalization, baseline comorbidity of cancer, AKI at admission, baseline lymphocyte count, baseline potassium, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The predicted AKI non-recovery risk model using the eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) algorithm achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve statistic of 0.807, discrimination with a sensitivity of 0.724, and a specificity of 0.738 in the temporal validation cohort.ConclusionThe machine learning model approach can accurately predict AKI non-recovery using routinely collected health data in clinical practice. These results suggest that multifactorial risk factors are involved in AKI non-recovery, requiring patient-centered risk assessments and promotion of post-discharge AKI care to prevent AKI complications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Jennifer White ◽  
Julie Byles ◽  
Tom Walley

Abstract Background Adaptive models of healthcare delivery, such as telehealth consultations, have rapidly been adopted to ensure ongoing delivery of essential healthcare services during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there remain gaps in our understanding of how clinicians have adapted to telehealth. This study aims to explore the telehealth experiences of specialists, based at a tertiary hospital in the Hunter Region, and general practitioners (GP), including barriers, enablers and opportunities. Methods An interpretative qualitative study involving in-depth interviews explored the telehealth experiences of specialists, based at a tertiary hospital in the Hunter Region of Australia, and GPs, including barriers, enablers and opportunities. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic approach with constant comparison. Results Individual interviews were conducted with 10 specialists and five GPs. Key themes were identified: (1) transition to telehealth has been valuable but challenging; (2) persisting telehealth process barriers need to be addressed; (3) establishing when face-to-face consults are essential; (4) changes in workload pressures and potential for double-up; (5) essential modification of work practices; and (6) exploring what is needed going forward. Conclusions While there is a need to rationalize and optimize health access during a pandemic, we suggest that more needs to be done to improve telehealth going forward. Our results have important policy implications. Specifically, there is a need to effectively train clinicians to competently utilize and be confident using this telehealth and to educate patients on necessary skills and etiquette.

2022 ◽  
Maram M. Baksh ◽  
Yasser S. Amer ◽  
Maher Titi ◽  
Diana Jamal ◽  
Abdulrahman Al-Muammar ◽  

Abstract BackgroundThe Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has undergone a healthcare system transformation to improve healthcare delivery and quality and central to this is the accreditation for healthcare facilities. Hospitals in KSA have relied on international accreditation bodies and are now shifting to national accreditation boards. The objective of this paper is to assess long-term effects of national and international accreditation through measuring staff perception after ten years of participation in multiple accreditation surveys.MethodsThis mixed-methods study was conducted at the King Saud University Medical City. The quantitative tool was adapted from previous studies and was made available in both English and Arabic. Respondents were asked to evaluate their involvement in accreditation and hospital readiness for another accreditation survey using 11 subscales. ANOVA was used to evaluate differences in mean scores based on level of participation in accreditation surveys. A qualitative interview tool was also used to elicit input from key stakeholders, senior leaders, and managers from the university hospitals. ResultsA total of 630 respondents completed the survey. The subscale on Patient Safety scored highest with an average and those measuring Accreditation Impact, Quality Impact and Quality Management closely followed. ANOVA results showed a significantly increasing mean score with increasing involvement of respondents in accreditation with highest scores observed for the first accreditation survey. Linear regression results showed increases in selected outcomes when with increasing subscale scores for patient satisfaction, management and leadership and others. Findings from the qualitative component showed that accreditation supported improved and sustained quality of care. Despite some differences and challenges in implementing both international and national accreditation standards, there were areas of complementarity which supported quality improvement. Respondents also noted improvements in patient outcomes as a result of participation in accreditation.ConclusionThis study is the first to examine the long-term impact of accreditation over an extended period in KSA. The long-term assessment of accreditation conducted in this study revealed that staff perception about performance was highest during the first cycle and consistently decreased with consequent surveys. The slight and incremental decrease in scale scores reveal that the benefits of accreditation were retained.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 20
Chandani Liyanage

Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown origin (CKDu) has appeared across Sri Lanka’s North Central Province (NCP) since the 1990s as an epidemic, unexplained by conventional associated risk factors. During the past few decades, a large number of studies attempted to determine the unknown etiology of CKDu. Despite these investigations, no concrete conclusions were developed, though a number of contradictory hypotheses emerged. The present ethnographic study was carried out in two endemic areas, labelled as “CKDu hotspots”, and illuminates how curing takes place between biomedicine and traditional cultural practices. Our ethnographic study thoroughly scrutinized three decades of lived experience, lay-perceptions and local discourses on CKDu. We used a qualitative study design with a transcendental phenomenological approach and employed a mixture of ethnographic methods. Data collection techniques included participant observation, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Data was analysed by using an interpretive thematic analysis model. Findings revealed that lay people have constructed a popular discourse on CKDu, and we explored their views on the origin, etiology and prevalence of CKDu in their locality over the past few decades. Patients’ narratives revealed that there were currently a number of gaps in service delivery. These were mainly due to distant relationships between healthcare providers and CKDu patients. Lay people in affected communities were marginalized throughout the investigation process to determine the unknown etiology, their involvement marginalized to merely acting as objects for scientific instigation. The affected communities strongly believed that CKDu was a recent phenomenon resulting from the mismanagement of the natural environment due to social and lifestyle changes. These findings highlight local dynamics of healthcare seeking behaviours which demand complementary medicine system, particularly given the number of limitations in the biomedical system. Empirical evidence generated from this study suggests a conceptual shift to an ethno-medical model to address CKDu. Improving cultural competency and communication skills among healthcare providers in public health are crucial in order to apply a “bio-psychosocial perspective” in healthcare delivery system and bridging the gap between hospital and the community.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Khutsafalo Kadimo ◽  
Athulang Mutshewa ◽  
Masego B. Kebaetse

Purpose Seeking to leverage on benefits of personal mobile device use, medical schools and healthcare facilities are increasingly embracing the use of personal mobile devices for medical education and healthcare delivery through bring-your-own-device (BYOD) policies. However, empirical research findings that could guide the development of BYOD policies are scarce. Available research is dominated by studies that were guided by technocentric approaches, hence seemingly overlooking the complexities of the interactions of actors in mobile device technologies implementation. The purpose of this study was to use the actor–network theory to explore the potential role of a BYOD policy at the University of Botswana’s Faculty of Medicine. Design/methodology/approach Purposive sampling was used to select the participants and interviews, focus group discussions, observations and document analysis were used to collect data. Data were collected from 27 participants and analysed using grounded theory techniques. Emerging themes were continually compared and contrasted with incoming data to create broad themes and sub-themes and to establish relationships or patterns from the data. Findings The results suggest that the potential roles for BYOD policy include promoting appropriate mobile device use, promoting equitable access to mobile devices and content, and integrating mobile devices into medical education, healthcare delivery and other institutional processes. Research limitations/implications BYOD policy could be conceptualized and researched as a “script” that binds actors/actants into a “network” of constituents (with shared interests) such as medical schools and healthcare facilities, mobile devices, internet/WiFi, computers, software, computer systems, medical students, clinical teachers or doctors, nurses, information technology technicians, patients, curriculum, information sources or content, classrooms, computer labs and infections. Practical implications BYOD is a policy that seeks to represent the interests (presents as a solution to their problems) of the key stakeholders such as medical schools, healthcare facilities and mobile device users. BYOD is introduced in medical schools and healthcare facilities to promote equitable access to mobile devices and content, appropriate mobile device use and ensure distribution of liability between the mobile device users and the institution and address the implication of mobile device use in teaching and learning. Originality/value The BYOD policy is a comprehensive solution that transcends other institutional policies and regulations to fully integrate mobile devices in medical education and healthcare delivery.

2022 ◽  
pp. 107815522110737
Lynn Neilson ◽  
Monal Kohli ◽  
Kiraat D Munshi ◽  
Samuel K Peasah ◽  
Rochelle Henderson ◽  

Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on healthcare delivery. Although others have documented the impact on new cancer diagnoses, trends in new starts for oncology drugs are less clear. We examined changes in new users of oral oncology medications in the US following COVID-19 stay-at-home orders in 2020 compared to prior years. Methods We examined prescription data for members enrolled with a national pharmacy benefits manager in the US from January 1-October 31 of 2018, 2019, and/or 2020. This is a retrospective, observational study comparing new users per 100,000 members per month for all oral oncology drugs, and separately for breast, lung, and prostate cancer, leukemia, and melanoma oral drugs. We performed a difference-in-differences analysis for change in new users from pre-period (prior to pandemic-induced disruption, January-March), to post-period (following pandemic-induced disruption, April-October), between 2020 and 2019, and 2020 and 2018. Results New oral oncology drug users per 100,000 members per month declined by an additional 11.3% in the 2020 post-period compared to 2019 ( p = 0.048). New oral breast cancer drug starts declined by an additional 14.0% in the 2020 post-period compared to 2019 ( p = 0.040). Similar but non-significant trends were found between 2020 and 2018. No significant differences were found between post-period monthly new starts of leukemia, melanoma, lung or prostate cancer disease-specific oral medications. Conclusions Long-term implications of delays in cancer treatment initiation are unclear, although there is concern that patient outcomes may be negatively impacted.

Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 100
Jonathan Kopel ◽  
Bojana Ristic ◽  
Gregory L. Brower ◽  
Hemant Goyal

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has brought significant challenges to many aspects of healthcare delivery since the first reported case in early December 2019. Once in the body, SARS-CoV-2 can spread to other digestive organs, such as the liver, because of the presence of ACE2 receptors. Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the second-leading cause of death in the United States (US). Therefore, individuals are routinely screened using either endoscopic methods (i.e., flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy) or stool-based tests, as per the published guidelines. At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) recommended that all non-urgent surgical and medical procedures, including screening colonoscopies, be delayed until the pandemic stabilization. This article aims to review the impact of COVID-19 on CRC screening.

Lonnie R. Snowden ◽  
Eli Michaels

Abstract Federally Qualified Community Health Centers (FQHCs), serving Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs), are fixtures of the healthcare safety net and are central to healthcare delivery for African Americans and other marginalized Americans. Anti-African American bias, tied to anti- “welfare” sentiment and to a belief in African Americans’ supposed safety net dependency, can suppress states’ willingness to identify HPSAs and to apply for and operate FQHCs. Drawing on data from n = 1,084,553 non-Hispanic White Project Implicit respondents from 2013–2018, we investigated associations between state-level implicit and explicit racial bias and availability of FQHCs and with HPSA designations. After controlling for states’ sociopolitical conservatism, wealth, health status, and acceptance of the Affordable Care Act’s Medicaid expansion, greater racial bias was correlated with fewer FQHC delivery sites and fewer HPSA designations. White’s bias against African Americans is associated with fewer FQHC opportunities for care and fewer identifications of treatment need for African Americans and other low-income people lacking healthcare options, reflecting bias-influenced neglect.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Thiébaut-Noël Willig ◽  
Vincent Henry ◽  
Jean-Claude Netter ◽  
Patrick Contis ◽  
Cécile Castro-Gutierrez ◽  

Introduction: Access in France to early diagnosis and care for the most severe, but infrequent, Neurodevelopmental Disorders (NDD), autism spectrum disorder and global developmental delay, in children aged 0–7 was improved through measures implemented in 2019. However, there are no such measures for specific learning disorders (SLD), attention, motricity and language disorders (SLDD), despite their annual incidence of between 5 and 8%.Method: We describe the design of a new type of organization and financing of care for SLDD including evaluation procedure, as well as other factors, mainly at the prevention level that will contribute to local and national policy for this frequent health problem. This in response to a national call for projects, commonly called Article 51, targeted innovation in healthcare delivery and funding in the context of medium-term national reform. This provides project stakeholders with the opportunity to set up and implement “bottom-up” projects, mainly using local professionals. A joint initiative by the regional Health Authorities of the Occitanie region, the French Social Security system and a non-profit Association (Occitadys) proposed an experimental new structure of NDD care and funding.Discussion: We here discuss the design of this experiment that aims, over two to three years, to alleviate families' financial burden of care and establish a regional three-tier care system with respect to evaluation, re-education and rehabilitation care. Our approach may benefit SLDD health-care planning, and addresses the questions of prevention, early detection and care-design for families, taking local and socioeconomic disparities into account.

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