Evaluation of Iraqi medicinal plants is very crucial to help people avoid the use of herbs without prior knowledge which results in many side effects and sometimes even leads to death. The plant constituents vary according to season, weather and type of soil, therefore it is necessary to evaluate the chemical constituents and determine the time of collection of medicinal plants. In this research evaluation of the medicinal plant Calendula officinal grown in Iraq was performed by measuring the quantity of hyperoside found in the plant together with macroscopical and microscopical evaluation of the plant.
Tuberculosis is one of the leading cause of increase in mortality rate in today’s health care scenario. Due to increase frequency of drug resistant TB it is prudent to find new targets and promising targets for anti-tubercular activity. MmpL3 (Mycobacterial Membrane Protein Large 3) is one of the most effective and promiscuous targets for development of new drug for anti-tubercular therapy due to its cross resistance inhibition property. In this study we have presented atom based 3D QSAR and finger print based 2D QSAR models to study different structural and functional groups of Adamantyl urea derivatives and their action in MmpL3 inhibitory activity which will provide us the insight for designing better and far more effective anti TB drugs.
Introduction: Antidepressants are used primarily in the management of depressive and anxiety disorders. The occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to antidepressants is a major challenge as it influences patient compliance. Aim: The aim of this study was to find out the ADR profile of antidepressant drugs in a mental health institute in Odisha. Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional observational study conducted in Department of Pharmacology in collaboration with Mental Health Institute (Centre of Excellence) S.C.B Medical College and Hospital, Cuttack from September 2017 to September 2019. Patients who received at least one antidepressant drug were included in the study irrespective of age and sex. Data were collected by interviewing the patients or attendants and on detection of ADR, it was recorded on suspected ADR reporting form designed by PvPI. Causality, severity and preventability of ADRs were assessed by, WHO-UMC causality assessment, modified Hartwig-Siegel Scale and modified Schumock-Thornton criteria respectively. Results: Out of 180 patients taking antidepressants, ADRs were reported in 24% of patients, with either possible or probable causality. None were labelled as certain. ADRs were observed in 50% of patients who received TCAs and among 34.5% who received polytherapy. Insomnia (27%), fatigue (17%) and agitation (13%) were most common ADRs. Most of the ADRs were of mild severity (91%) and not preventable (84%).
Conclusion: Insomnia, fatigue and agitation were among most common ADRs. There was increased chance of ADRs with polytherapy and use of TCAs. Most ADRs were mild and not preventable.
A combined dose tablet formulation containing Amlodipine besylate and Lisinopril is used for the treatment of essential hypertension. The present study reports development and validation of stability indicating high performance thin layer chromatographic method for simultaneous estimation of these drugs in combined dose tablet formulation. The two drugs were satisfactorily resolved on aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 using n-butanol : methanol: ammonia (4:4:1 v/v/v) as mobile phase. The Rf value for lisinopril and amlodipine besylate were 0.27±0.02 and 0.62±0.02, respectively. Densitometric evaluation of the separated bands was performed at 215nm. The calibration curves for lisinopril and amlodipine besylate were found to be linear in the concentration range of 1000-6000ng/band. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines for accuracy, precision, robustness, specificity, limit of detection and limit of quantitation. Statistical analysis proves that the method is suitable for simultaneous analysis of Lisinopril and Amlodipine besylate in pharmaceutical formulation without any interference from the excipients/degradant. The developed method offers several advantages such as sensitive, rapid, cost effective and less time consuming as compared to the reported methods. As the method could effectively separate the drugs from its degradation products, it can be employed as a stability indicating method.
In this study, two analytical methods were used to determinate the protein, the ammonia ion selective electrode method and dye binding method using orange G and the spectrophotometer at λmax 478 nm by determining the linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantitation of each. In comparison, the dye binding method was chosen for its accuracy, repeatability, sensitivity (LOD, LOQ) and speed of performance. After that, it was applied to samples of prepared plain yogurt to study effect of different properties (source, heat treatment and type) of used milk on protein content of plain yogurt.
Background: Andrographis paniculata is a herbaceous plant in the Acanthaceae family, that is widely used as a traditional medicine in Asian countries and known to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological effects. Recent studies have provided an overview of the great potential of A. paniculata as an analgesic. The ethanol extract and ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of A.paniculata were shown to contain diterpene lactone compounds, which may be useful as a potential active ingredient in analgesic drugs. The development of a herbal medicine based drug requires an effective and high quality active ingredient. Therefore, this research was aimed to compare the analgesic activity of ethanol extract and EA fraction based on their andrographolide content and further to determine the more viable active substance for analgesic herbal medicine based drug development. Method: The andrographolide content in the ethanol extract and EA fraction was determined by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Measurement of analgesic activity was performed by writhing test. The experimental animals were randomly divided into eight groups consisting of 5 mice in each. Group 1 (negative control) received 1% Tween-80 in normal saline. Group 2 (positive control) received a standard analgesic drug (diclofenac sodium) at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight. Group 3, 4, and 5 received ethanol extract while Group 6, 7, and 8 received EA fraction, each at a dose of 12.5, 25, and 50 mg andrographolide/kg body weight, respectively. Each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with 1% acetic acid at a dose of 10 ml/kg body weight 30 minutes after oral administration of the treatments. The number of writhes were counted 5 min after acetic acid injection over a period of 45 min. Results: Andrographolide content in ethanol extract and EA fraction was 15.66±0.28 and 21.25±1.08 % w/w, respectively. Ethanol extract and EA fraction displayed analgesic activity of 67.68% and 70.91% respectively, at a dose of 50 mg andrographolide/kg body weight. The positive control at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight showed an analgesic activity of 74.33%. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences between EA fraction at a dose of 50 mg andrographolide/kg body weight and ethanol extract at the same dose as well as the positive control (P> 0.05). The effective dose 50% (ED50) of the ethanol extract and EA fraction was determined to be 29.49 and 25.55 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Conclusion: It was possible to use andrographolide content as an indicator for the analgesic activity of A.paniculata. Ethanol extract and EA fraction of A. paniculata at the same dose of andrographolide showed similar analgesic activity. The amount of ethanol extract which needed to reach similar analgesic activity was higher than EA fraction. Therefore, EA fraction likely has greater potential as an analgesic active substance due to its higher content of andrographolide; however further study is needed to develop it as a dosage form.
Gold nanoparticles have found a wide range of application in biomedical sciences. Unique properties of these metal nanoparticles include surface plasmon resonance and size dependent colour change. Various molecules have been functionalized on the gold nanoparticles surface but carbohydrates have garnered attention due to their properties and their role in living systems. However certain challenges make carbohydrate-gold nanoparticles association difficult to obtain and stabilize. This study was carried out to chemically remodel gold nanoparticles by adding a monosaccharide mannose to its surface. A modified phase transfer method was used to synthesize gold nanoparticles. The surface of the nanoparticles was fixed with cyanuric chloride to serve as a linker. Mannose was then linked to the linker molecule. All three stages of the process, gold nanoparticles, and gold nanoparticles with linker and gold nanoparticles with the carbohydrate were analyzed for size and stability. Zeta potential and UV-vis data exhibited stable gold nanoparticles dispersion, successful binding of linker molecule as well as the carbohydrate. This study shows a simple, cost-effective and robust method of glycomodification of gold nanoparticles surface which can further find use in wide ranging applications.
This study aimed to determine the solubility of lovastatin (LV) in different oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant using the high-performance liquid chromatography method. LV was solubility studies in different vehicle. The different vehicle used almond oil, sunflower oil, oleic acid, olive oil, soybean oil, and corn oil, isoprophyl myristate, myoglyol, tween 80, tween 20, and cremophor R.H. 40, propylene glycol, and PEG 400. Each of them was added lovastatin until saturated. The mixtures were mixing, sonicating, putting in the water bath and standing for 24 hours, then centrifugated. Each of the aliquot 2 µL diluted with acetonitrile and determination of concentration lovastatin using HPLC, with detector ultraviolet at 237 nm. Before determinate LV validated, and curve calibration at range 2-16 µg/mL was made. This study using the HPLC method with detector UV 237 nm, Agilent C 18 (4.6 x 150 mm 5 µ) column, and acetonitrile: water (70:30 v/v) as mobile phase. Calibration curve of lovastatin at the range 2-16 µg/mL with linear regression 0.999. Accuracy and precision showed that. Lovastatin has high soluble in oleic acid, tween 80, and PEG 400.
Recent research studies indicate the role of functional foods in preventing the development of complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Chia seeds are an excellent source of dietary fibre, essential fatty acids, micronutrients and non-nutritive components. The objective of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant, antibacterial, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory potential of chia seeds. TPC and TFC were estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu Reagent and Alumininum Chloride method. The antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH● radical, ABTS●+ radical, Superoxide (O2-) radical, Fe3+ reducing and phosphomolybdenum reduction assay. Agar well diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Shigella flexneri, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated using alpha amylase inhibition assay and heat induced haemolysis method. Volatile functional compounds were identified using Gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Upon quantification, TPC and TFC were found to be 850.67±14.14µg/mg GAE and 171.21±12.86µg/mg QE. Free radical scavenging activity of chia seeds was ranked in the order of DPPH● radical >ABTS●+ radical > Superoxide (O2-) radical. The capability of chia seeds to function as electron donors was evident through its strong reducing power. With regard to antibacterial activity, maximum inhibition was observed for Staphylococcus aureus, with a zone of inhibition of 31mm at 500µg/mL. Results of antidiabetic assay highlighted the alpha amylase inhibitory action of chia seeds with an IC50 value of 121.46µg/mL. The anti-inflammatory activity of chia seeds increased linearly in a dose dependent manner. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of functionally active compounds such as coumarine, napthoquinone, phytol, fatty acids, flavone and flavone derivatives. Findings of the study highlight that chia seeds have several essential therapeutic properties. Furthermore, clinical studies are required to validate the role of chia seeds in preventing the development of complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The present study is aimed to observe the difference in the Physico-Chemical characteristics of the marketed and formulated bhasma samples through X-Ray Diffraction analysis (XRD), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Zeta potential, Thermo-Gravimetric analysis (TGA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray analysis (EDAX), apart from organoleptic methods. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICPMS) analysis was also done to observe the presence of trace and heavy metals so that the safety of all these samples could be ensured. XRD shows variation in oxide nature of zinc as well crystallite size in all bhasma samples. DLS and SEM results show difference in particle size of marketed bhasma samples as compared to formulated Yashada bhasma. EDAX and ICPMS also confirm the alteration in elemental composition of all these bhasma samples. Thus, it can be concluded that these ayurvedic medicines should be prepared strictly using the formulation methods as mentioned in the Ayurvedic texts. This will help the prepared products to adopt the inherent quality of the ancient system of medicine, which shall be useful and devoid of any side effects for human consumption.