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Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 434
Author(s):  
Stefan A. Lange ◽  
Holger Reinecke

Cardiovascular disease and cancer remain the leading causes of hospitalization and mortality in high-income countries. Survival after myocardial infarction has improved but there is still a difference in clinical outcome, mortality, and developing heart failure to the disadvantage of women with myocardial infarction. Most major cardiology trials and registries have excluded patients with cancer. As a result, there is only very limited information on the effects of coronary artery disease in cancer patients. In particular, the outcomes in women with cancer and coronary artery disease and its management remain empiric. We reviewed studies of over 27 million patients with coronary artery disease and cancer. Our review focused on the most important types of cancer (breast, colon, lung, prostate) and hematological malignancies with particular attention to sex-specific differences in treatment and prognosis.


Dose-Response ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 155932582110670
Author(s):  
Yahui Feng ◽  
Yiying Gao ◽  
Wenling Tu ◽  
Yang Feng ◽  
Jianping Cao ◽  
...  

Radiation-induced lung injury is a common complication of radiotherapy for lung cancer, breast cancer, esophageal cancer, and thymoma. This study aims to illustrate biomarkers of radiation-induced lung injury and its potential mechanism through the study of metabolomic alterations in serum of Sprague-Dawley rats with different radiation doses. Serum from 0, 10, or 20 Gy irradiated rats were collected and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The result showed that there were 23 dysregulated metabolites between the 10 Gy irradiation group and the 0 Gy control group, whereas 36 preferential metabolites were found between the 20 Gy irradiated rat serum and the control groups. Among them, there were 19 common differential metabolites in the 2 irradiation groups, including 3 downregulated (benzyl thiocyanate, carbazole, and N-formyl-L-methionine) and 16 upregulated metabolites. We further analyzed the metabolic pathways of different metabolites; the results showed that there were 3 significant enrichment pathways in the 10 Gy vs 0 Gy group and 7 significant enrichment pathways in the 20 Gy vs 0 Gy group. Among them, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, riboflavin metabolism, and glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism were the common metabolic enrichment pathways of the 10 Gy vs 0 Gy group and the 20 Gy vs 0 Gy group.


2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 177-186
Author(s):  
Elisa Tri Oktaviyana ◽  
Wahyu Utami

Cisplatin is one of chemotherapy agent for long cancer, ovarium cancer, gastric cancer, breast cancer, head-neck cancer. However, in the fact, the role of cisplatin does not always provide an optimal effect because it often appears cancer cell resistance phenomenon to cisplatin. This resistance condition occurs partly due to the inactive metabolite cause of conjugation reaction between cisplatin and GSH in cancer cells. Therefore, gluthathione (GSH) has an important role in controlling cisplatin resistance. This study aims to analyze some combination of cisplatin and the depletion agent of gluthathione (GSH) as a support for cisplatin activity in several types of cancer cells within in vitro scope. This study is prepared using systematic literature review method. Library search were carried out on two accredited international journals databases, namely PubMed and Science Direct with interval years of publication in 2011-2020. From 10 selected journals, it was shown that the use of GSH depletion agents could enhance the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin. This was analyzed based on data of the number measured GSH cells and the number of living cells (% cell viability) which gave a significant decrease. The result of research are expected to be able to provide information for the development of therapeutic agents on cisplatin as chemotherapy.


2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
pp. 10-15
Author(s):  
Maddaly Ravi ◽  
Aishwarya Pargaonkar ◽  
Anuradha Ramesh ◽  
Gatika Agrawal ◽  
Jennifer Sally ◽  
...  

Objectives: Three-dimensional (3D) printing has gained significance for human health-care applications in recent years. Some of these applications include obtaining models which mimic anatomical parts. One other parallel development in the biological research area is the development of 3D cell cultures. Such cultures are now becoming the material of choice for in vitro experiments, fast replacing the traditional adherent/monolayer 2D culture approaches. We present here, a method to obtain 3D prints of 3D aggregates of three human cancer cell lines. Such 3D prints can be useful models to understand solid tumor morphologies and also as effective teaching models. Materials and Methods: Photomicrographs of the 3D aggregates of the human cancer cell lines SiHa, MCF-7, and A549 (human cervical cancer, breast cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, respectively) were obtained using inverted phase contrast microscopy. Conversion of normal jpeg images into 3D files was performed using the lithophane method and CAD files obtained. The CAD files thus generated were used to print the objects using the Stratasys Polyjet J750 3D Printer. Results: We could obtain 3D prints of SiHa, MCF-7, and A549 (human cervical cancer, breast cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, respectively) 3D aggregates/spheroids. Conclusion: It is hoped that this approach will be useful for studying solid tumor morphologies in finer details. Furthermore, other benefits of such 3D prints would be in them being excellent models for teaching purposes.


Healthcare ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 10
Author(s):  
Siti Khairi ◽  
Mohd Bakar ◽  
Sakhinah Bakar ◽  
Nurwahyuna Rosli ◽  
◽  
...  

Medical imaging is gaining significant attention in healthcare, including breast cancer. Breast cancer is the most common cancer-related death among women worldwide. Currently, histopathology image analysis is the clinical gold standard in cancer diagnosis. However, the manual process of microscopic examination involves laborious work and can be misleading due to human error. Therefore, this study explored the research status and development trends of deep learning on breast cancer image classification using bibliometric analysis. Relevant works of literature were obtained from the Scopus database between 2014 and 2021. The VOSviewer and Bibliometrix tools were used for analysis through various visualization forms. This study is concerned with the annual publication trends, co-authorship networks among countries, authors, and scientific journals. The co-occurrence network of the authors’ keywords was analyzed for potential future directions of the field. Authors started to contribute to publications in 2016, and the research domain has maintained its growth rate since. The United States and China have strong research collaboration strengths. Only a few studies use bibliometric analysis in this research area. This study provides a recent review on this fast-growing field to highlight status and trends using scientific visualization. It is hoped that the findings will assist researchers in identifying and exploring the potential emerging areas in the related field.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 630-630
Author(s):  
Maki Karakida ◽  
Chae Man Lee ◽  
Taylor Jansen ◽  
Shu Xu ◽  
Frank Porell ◽  
...  

Abstract The risk for multimorbidity increases with age. Community burden of comorbidities in New England (NE) was assessed by comparing state and community rates of two measures (having no comorbidities and having 4 or more) among Medicare beneficiaries age 65+ in CT, MA, NH, and RI. Data sources were the Medicare Current Beneficiary Summary File (2014-2017) and the American Community Survey (2014-2018). Small area estimation techniques were used to calculate age-sex adjusted community rates. Multimorbidity was measured as people with zero or with 4 or more of the following chronic conditions: Alzheimer’s disease, asthma, atrial fibrillation, cancer (breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate), kidney disease, COPD, depression, diabetes, congestive heart failure, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, ischemic heart disease, osteoporosis, arthritis, and stroke. Rates for 4+ conditions: RI 63.8% (45.76-70.69%), CT 61.8% (47.82-70.05%), MA 60.7% (40-74.96%), NH 54.4% (36.67-62.99%). Results were mapped, showing the statewide and regional distribution of rates. Rates were much higher for having 4+ chronic conditions than not having any comorbidities. RI had the highest rates of 4+ and in MA the highest chronic disease rates were found in lower socioeconomic communities. CT has the highest number of diverse older residents and dual-eligible beneficiaries for Medicare and Medicaid in NE. The rates show late-life health disparities that have implications for independent living, quality of life, and mortality suggesting the need for policies to provide equitable access to care and resources to disadvantaged NE communities.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yuan Cai ◽  
Kewa Gao ◽  
Bi Peng ◽  
Zhijie Xu ◽  
Jinwu Peng ◽  
...  

Alantolactone (ALT) is a natural compound extracted from Chinese traditional medicine Inula helenium L. with therapeutic potential in the treatment of various diseases. Recently, in vitro and in vivo studies have indicated cytotoxic effects of ALT on various cancers, including liver cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, etc. The inhibitory effects of ALT depend on several cancer-associated signaling pathways and abnormal regulatory factors in cancer cells. Moreover, emerging studies have reported several promising strategies to enhance the oral bioavailability of ALT, such as combining ALT with other herbs and using ALT-entrapped nanostructured carriers. In this review, studies on the anti-tumor roles of ALT are mainly summarized, and the underlying molecular mechanisms of ALT exerting anticancer effects on cells investigated in animal-based studies are also discussed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Author(s):  
Nan Zhang ◽  
Yuxin Zuo ◽  
Yu Peng ◽  
Lielian Zuo

N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) modification is a dynamic and reversible methylation modification at the N6-position of adenosine. As one of the most prevalent posttranscriptional methylation modifications of RNA, m6A modification participates in several mRNA processes, including nuclear export, splicing, translation, and degradation. Some proteins, such as METTL3, METTL14, WTAP, ALKBH5, FTO, and YTHDF1/2/3, are involved in methylation. These proteins are subdivided into writers (METTL3, METTL14, WTAP), erasers (ALKBH5, FTO), and readers (YTHDF1/2/3) according to their functions in m6A modification. Several studies have shown that abnormal m6A modification occurs in tumors, including colorectal cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and gastric cancer. The proteins for m6A modification are involved in tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, immunity, and other processes. Herein, the roles of m6A modification in cancer are discussed, which will improve the understanding of tumorigenesis, as well as the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of tumors.


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