Chain Fatty Acid
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2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Chia-Chia Lee ◽  
Yi-Chu Liao ◽  
Mon-Chien Lee ◽  
Kun-Ju Lin ◽  
Han-Yin Hsu ◽  

In humans, aging is characterized by the progressive decline in biological, physiological, and psychological functions, and is a major risk factor in the development of chronic diseases. Therefore, the development of strategies aimed at attenuating aging-related disorders and promoting healthy aging is critical. In a previous study, we have demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum TWK10 (TWK10), a probiotic strain isolated from Taiwanese pickled cabbage, improved muscle strength, exercise endurance, and overall body composition in healthy humans. In this study, the effect of TWK10 on the progression of age-related impairments was investigated in mice. We found that TWK10 not only enhanced muscle strength in young mice, but also prevented the aging-related loss of muscle strength in aged mice, which was accompanied by elevated muscle glycogen levels. Furthermore, TWK10 attenuated the aging-associated decline in learning and memory abilities, as well as bone mass. Further analyses of gut microbiota using next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the 16S rRNA gene showed that the pattern of gut microbial composition was clearly altered following 8 weeks of TWK10 administration. TWK10-treated mice also experienced an increase in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria and higher overall levels of gut SCFA. Furthermore, TWK10 administration to some extent reversed the aging-associated accumulation of pathogenic bacterial taxa. In conclusion, TWK10 could be viewed as a potential therapeutic agent that attenuates aging-related disorders and provides health benefits by modulating the imbalance of gut microbiota.

2021 ◽  
Vol 99 (Supplement_3) ◽  
pp. 56-57
Shannon E Finet ◽  
Fei He ◽  
Lindsay V Clark ◽  
Maria R de Godoy

Abstract Dietary fiber plays an important role in gastrointestinal health as it modulates the gut environment and promotes microbiome homeostasis. However, dietary fiber sources vary in composition, physico-chemical properties, and physiological effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of miscanthus grass fiber and prebiotic fiber blends on fecal microbiota, fecal metabolites, and apparent total tract digestibility in comparison to traditional dietary fiber sources. Animal procedures were approved by the University of Illinois Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Six dietary treatments were formulated to meet or exceed AAFCO nutrient profile (2018) and included either cellulose, beet pulp, miscanthus fiber, or a blend of miscanthus fiber and tomato pomace, miscanthus fiber and resistant starch, or miscanthus fiber and fructooligosaccharide. Twelve female adult beagles were randomly assigned one of the six treatments in a replicated 6x6 Latin square design and fed for 21 d including 17 d of diet adaptation followed by 4 d of total and fresh fecal collection. All diets were well digested by the animals. Dogs fed beet pulp had greater fecal total short-chain fatty acid concentration than the cellulose treatment (P < 0.05), while the dogs fed diets containing miscanthus fiber were intermediate. No difference in the α-diversity of fecal microbial communities was observed among treatments (P >0.05), while β-diversity of dogs fed the beet pulp treatment differed from the other treatment groups. Miscanthus grass can be utilized successfully in diets for adult dogs with tomato pomace and resistant starch blends resulting in similar physiological effects to cellulose.

2021 ◽  
Vol 99 (Supplement_3) ◽  
pp. 206-207
Debora Holanda ◽  
Alemu Regassa ◽  
Robert Patterson ◽  
Martin Nyachoti

Abstract The objective was to investigate the effects of a high canola meal-containing diet and multi-carbohydrase supplementation on growth performance and intestinal pH, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profile, and microbiome in weaned piglets. Twenty-four piglets (7.46 ± 0.23 kg BW) were individually assigned to 1 of 3 diets in a completely randomized design. Diets were fed for 21 d: SB, corn and soybean meal-based diet; CM, 25% canola meal substituting soybean meal and adjusted to meet energy and nutrient requirements of piglets (NRC, 2012); and CM+E, CM supplemented with multi-carbohydrase (0.01%). Feed disappearance and BW were recorded weekly. On d 21, piglets were euthanized to assess digesta pH, SCFA profile, and gut microbiome. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS using the piglet as the experimental unit. There were no differences (P > 0.10) in growth performance and digesta pH. Piglets fed CM+E tended to (P = 0.051) or had significantly lower (P < 0.05) butyric acid in the cecum than piglets fed CM and SB, respectively. Piglets fed SB had higher (P < 0.05) isobutyric acid in the colon than piglets fed CM+E. Piglets fed SB and CM tended to have higher (P < 0.05) isovaleric acid in the colon than piglets fed CM+E. Piglets fed SB tended to have lower (P < 0.10) proportion of Bifidobacteria, and had lower (P < 0.05) Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, and Lactobacillus than piglets fed CM. Piglets fed CM+E tended to have lower (P < 0.10) Bifidobacteria and higher Clostridium XIVa than piglets fed CM, and had lower (P < 0.05) Enterococcus, but higher (P < 0.05) Lactobacillus than piglets fed CM. In conclusion, feeding 25% of canola meal in substitution to soybean meal with or without multi-carbohydrase supplementation changed the intestinal environment by modifying SCFA profile and relative proportion of microbiome, but without affecting digesta pH or growth performance in nursery piglets.

Jorne Ubachs ◽  
Janine Ziemons ◽  
Zita Soons ◽  
Romy Aarnoutse ◽  
David P.J. Dijk ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Elizabeth M. Sajdel-Sulkowska

COVID-19-associated neuropsychiatric complications are soaring. There is an urgent need to understand the link between COVID-19 and neuropsychiatric disorders. To that end, this article addresses the premise that SARS-CoV-2 infection results in gut dysbiosis and an altered microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis that in turn contributes to the neuropsychiatric ramifications of COVID-19. Altered MGB axis activity has been implicated independently as a risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. A review of the changes in gut microbiota composition in individual psychiatric and neurological disorders and gut microbiota in COVID-19 patients revealed a shared “microbial signature” characterized by a lower microbial diversity and richness and a decrease in health-promoting anti-inflammatory commensal bacteria accompanied by an increase in opportunistic proinflammatory pathogens. Notably, there was a decrease in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producing bacteria. SCFAs are key bioactive microbial metabolites with anti-inflammatory functions and have been recognized as a critical signaling pathway in the MGB axis. SCFA deficiency is associated with brain inflammation, considered a cardinal feature of neuropsychiatric disorders. The link between SARS-CoV-2 infection, gut dysbiosis, and altered MGB axis is further supported by COVID-19-associated gastrointestinal symptoms, a high number of SARS-CoV-2 receptors, angiotensin-cleaving enzyme-2 (ACE-2) in the gut, and viral presence in the fecal matter. The binding of SARS-CoV-2 to the receptor results in ACE-2 deficiency that leads to decreased transport of vital dietary components, gut dysbiosis, proinflammatory gut status, increased permeability of the gut-blood barrier (GBB), and systemic inflammation. More clinical research is needed to substantiate further the linkages described above and evaluate the potential significance of gut microbiota as a diagnostic tool. Meanwhile, it is prudent to propose changes in dietary recommendations in favor of a high fiber diet or supplementation with SCFAs or probiotics to prevent or alleviate the neuropsychiatric ramifications of COVID-19.

Michael J. Wolfgang ◽  
Joseph Choi ◽  
Susanna Scafidi

Odontocete cetaceans exhibit genomic mutations in key ketogenesis genes. In order to validate an inferred lack of ketogenesis made by observations from genome sequencing, we biochemically analyzed tissues from several odontocete cetacean species and demonstrate that they indeed do not exhibit appreciable hepatic β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) or its carnitine ester. Furthermore, liver tissue exhibited significantly lower long chain acylcarnitines and increased odd chain acylcarnitines indicative of a decreased reliance on hepatic long chain fatty acid oxidation in these carnivorous mammals. Finally, we performed Single Molecule, Real-Time next generation sequencing of liver and brain RNA of T. truncatus and demonstrate that the succinyl-CoA transferase required for acetoacetate catabolism is expressed in the nervous system. These data show that odontocete cetaceans have lost the ability to perform ketogenesis and suggest a hepatocentric Coenzyme A recycling function rather than a predominantly systemic-bioenergetic role for ketogenesis in other ketogenic competent mammals like humans.

Sarah K Kirschner ◽  
Gabriella A.M. Ten Have ◽  
Marielle P.K.J. Engelen ◽  
Nicolaas E.P. Deutz

The short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, and valerate are end products of intestinal bacterial fermentation and important mediators in the interplay between the intestine and peripheral organs. To unravel the transorgan fluxes and mass balance comparisons of SCFAs, we measured their net fluxes across several organs in a translational pig model. In multi-catheterized conscious pigs (n=12, 25.6 (95% CI [24.2, 26.9]) kg, 8-12 weeks old), SCFA fluxes across portal drained viscera (PDV), liver, kidneys, and hindquarter (muscle compartment) were measured after an overnight fast and in the postprandial state, 4 h after administration of a fiber-free, mixed meal. PDV was the main releasing compartment of acetate, propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, and valerate during fasting and in the postprandial state (all P=0.001). Splanchnic acetate release was high due to the absence of hepatic clearance. All other SCFAs were extensively taken up by the liver (all P<0.05). Even though only 7% [4, 10] (propionate), 42% [23, 60] (butyrate), 26% [12, 39] (isovalerate), and 3% [0.4, 5] (valerate) of PDV release were excreted from the splanchnic area in the fasted state, splanchnic release of all SCFAs was significant (all P≤0.01). Splanchnic propionate, butyrate, isovalerate and valerate release remained low but significant in the postprandial state (all P<0.01). We identified muscle and kidneys as main peripheral SCFA metabolizing organs, taking up the majority of all splanchnically released SCFAs in the fasted state and in the postprandial state. We conclude that the PDV is the main SCFA releasing and the liver the main SCFA metabolizing organ. Splanchnically released SCFAs appear to be important energy substrates to peripheral organs not only in the fasted but also in the postprandial state.

Cell Reports ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 37 (1) ◽  
pp. 109767
Aude Angelini ◽  
Pradip K. Saha ◽  
Antrix Jain ◽  
Sung Yun Jung ◽  
Randall L. Mynatt ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Evelyn Medawar ◽  
Sven-Bastiaan Haange ◽  
Ulrike Rolle-Kampczyk ◽  
Beatrice Engelmann ◽  
Arne Dietrich ◽  

AbstractThe gut microbiome has been speculated to modulate feeding behavior through multiple factors, including short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Evidence on this relationship in humans is however lacking. We aimed to explore if specific bacterial genera relate to eating behavior, diet, and SCFA in adults. Moreover, we tested whether eating-related microbiota relate to treatment success in patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Anthropometrics, dietary fiber intake, eating behavior, 16S-rRNA-derived microbiota, and fecal and serum SCFA were correlated in young overweight adults (n = 27 (9 F), 21–36 years, BMI 25–31 kg/m2). Correlated genera were compared in RYGB (n = 23 (16 F), 41–70 years, BMI 25–62 kg/m2) and control patients (n = 17 (11 F), 26–69 years, BMI 25–48 kg/m2). In young adults, 7 bacteria genera, i.e., Alistipes, Blautia, Clostridiales cluster XVIII, Gemmiger, Roseburia, Ruminococcus, and Streptococcus, correlated with healthier eating behavior, while 5 genera, i.e., Clostridiales cluster IV and XIVb, Collinsella, Fusicatenibacter, and Parabacteroides, correlated with unhealthier eating (all | r | > 0.4, FDR-corrected p < 0.05). Some of these genera including Parabacteroides related to fiber intake and SCFA, and to weight status and treatment response in overweight/obese patients. In this exploratory analysis, specific bacterial genera, particularly Parabacteroides, were associated with weight status and eating behavior in two small, independent and well-characterized cross-sectional samples. These preliminary findings suggest two groups of presumably beneficial and unfavorable genera that relate to eating behavior and weight status, and indicate that dietary fiber and SCFA metabolism may modify these relationships. Larger interventional studies are needed to distinguish correlation from causation.

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