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2021 ◽  
Vol 227 ◽  
pp. 112883
Wen-Jun Zhao ◽  
Xiang Li ◽  
Ze-Qiong Xu ◽  
Ke-Ming Fang ◽  
Hua-Chang Hong ◽  

Roberta A. Mittelstaedt ◽  
Azra Dad ◽  
Mason G. Pearce ◽  
Robert H. Heflich ◽  
Xuefei Cao

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Donagh P. Berry ◽  
Siobhan R. Ring

Understanding dairy producer mindset in service sire selection can provide useful information for different junctures along the commercial and extension animal breeding chain. It can aid the targeted marketing of bulls based on farm production systems but also provide useful information for delivering bespoke extension services. The objective of the present study was to examine if differences exist among dairy producers in their choice of dairy and beef service sires depending on the life stage at which the surplus progeny generated from such matings exit the dairy farm. This was predominantly based on evaluating the breed of beef sires used but also their genetic merit for calving difficulty and carcass traits, namely, carcass weight, conformation, and fat score; differences in genetic merit among dairy sires as well as among the dairy cows themselves were also considered. The objective was accomplished through the cross-sectional analyses of progeny fate data from 1,092,403 progeny born in 4,117 Irish dairy herds. Herd-years were categorized into one of four systems based on when the surplus progeny exited the dairy farm: (1) calves sold <70 days of age, (2) cattle sold as yearlings between 250 and 450 days of age, (3) prime cattle sold for finishing (slaughtered between 8 and 120 days of exiting the dairy farm), or (4) prime cattle sold for immediate slaughter (i.e., slaughtered within 7 days of exiting the dairy farm). The mean genetic merit of both the cows and service sires used across the four different systems was estimated using linear mixed models. Of the beef service sires used in herds that sold their surplus progeny as calves, their mean predicted transmitting ability for carcass weight and carcass conformation score was just 2.00 kg and 0.11 scores [scale of 1 (poor) to 15 (excellent)] inferior to the beef service sires used in herds that sold their surplus progeny as prime cattle for immediate slaughter. Similar trends, albeit of smaller magnitude, were evident when comparing the genetic merit of the dairy service sires used in those systems. Cows in herds that sold their surplus progeny as calves were genetically less likely to incur dystocia as well as to have lighter, less-conformed, and leaner carcasses than cows in herds that sold their surplus progeny post-weaning. Hence, results from the present study suggest that diversity in herd strategy regarding when surplus progeny exit the herd influences service sire selection choices in respect of genetic merit for dystocia and carcass attributes. That said, the biological difference based on the current pool of available service sires is small relative to the dairy producers that sell their surplus progeny as young calves; when expressed on a per standard deviation in genetic merit of the beef service sires used across all herds, the difference between extreme systems was, nonetheless, approximately half a standard deviation for carcass weight and conformation.

Sebastian L Torres ◽  
Abraham Landeros ◽  
Eleanor J Penhallegon ◽  
Kaleth Salazar ◽  
Lindsay M Porter

Abstract Widow spiders are widely known for their potent venom toxins that make them among the few spiders of medical concern. The latrotoxins are the most well-studied widow toxins and include both the vertebrate-specific latrotoxins and the insect-specific latroinsectotoxins (LITs). Previous studies have shown that toxins are not limited to expression in the venom glands of adult spiders; however, gaps exist in latrotoxin screening across all life stages for brown widows, Latrodectus geometricus and southern black widows, Latrodectus mactans. In this study, we screened male and female venom gland, cephalothorax, and abdomen tissues, spiderling cephalothorax and abdomen tissues, and eggs of both L. geometricus and L. mactans, for the presence of three latrotoxins: α-latrotoxin (α-LTX), and α- and δ-latroinsectotoxins (α/δ-LITs). Widows were locally collected. Extracted RNA was used to prepare cDNA that was analyzed by PCR for the presence or absence of latrotoxin expression. Results show that expression profiles between the two species are very similar but not identical. Expression of α-LTX was found in all life stages in all tissues examined for both species. For both species, no LIT expression was detected in eggs and variable patterns of α-LIT expression were detected in spiderlings and adults. Notably, δ-LIT could only be detected in females for both species. Our results show that latrotoxin expression profiles differ within and between widow species. Data on their expression distribution provide further insight into the specific latrotoxins that contribute to toxicity profiles for each life stage in each species and their specific role in widow biology.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0256967
Kandauda A. S. Wickrama ◽  
Catherine Walker OˋNeal ◽  
Tae Kyoung Lee ◽  
Seonhwa Lee

The present study investigated an integrated life course model, drawn from the life course theoretical perspective, to elucidate youth’s additive, cascading, and cumulative life course processes stemming from early socioeconomic adversity and education polygenic score (education PGS) as well as potential interactions between them (GxE), which contribute to subsequent young adult socioeconomic outcomes. Additionally, the independent, varying associations among social and genetic predictors, life-stage specific educational outcomes (educational achievement in adolescence and educational attainment, in later stages), and young adult economic outcomes were examined. The study used prospective, longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent and Adult Health (Add Health) with a sample of 5,728 youth of European ancestry. Early family socioeconomic adversity and individual education PGS were associated with life stage-specific educational outcomes through additive and cascading processes linked to young adults’ economic outcomes (personal earnings) through a cumulative process. A GxE moderation existed between individuals’ education PGS and early socioeconomic adversity at multiple life stages, explaining variation in adolescent educational outcomes. Both early socioeconomic adversity and education PGS were persistently associated with youth’s educational and economic outcomes throughout the early life course. In sum, the findings based on the integrated life course model showed how additive, cascading, and cumulative processes were related and conditioned one another, generating specific life course patterns and outcomes. The findings highlight the value of incorporating molecular genetic information into longitudinal developmental life course research and provide insight into malleable characteristics and appropriate timing for interventions addressing youth developmental characteristics.

2021 ◽  
Elizabeth G Postema

Abstract When constraints on antipredator coloration shift over the course of development, it can be advantageous for animals to adopt different color strategies for each life stage. Many caterpillars in the genus Papilio exhibit unique ontogenetic color sequences: e.g., early instars that masquerade as bird feces, with later instars possessing eyespots. I hypothesize that larvae abandon feces masquerade in lieu of eyespots due to ontogenetic changes in signaler size. This ontogenetic pattern also occurs within broader seasonal shifts in background color and predator activity. I conducted predation experiments with artificial prey to determine how potential signaling constraints (specifically size and season) shape predation risk, and consequently the expression of ontogenetic color change in Papilio larvae. Seasonally, both predation and background greenness declined significantly from July to September, though there was little evidence that these patterns impacted the effectiveness of either color strategy. Caterpillar size and color strongly affected the attack rate of avian predators: attacks increased with prey size regardless of color, and eyespotted prey were attacked more than masquerading prey overall. These results may reflect a key size-mediated tradeoff between conspicuousness and intimidation in eyespotted prey, and raise questions about how interwoven aspects of behavior and signal environment might maintain the prevalence of large, eyespotted larvae in nature.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Karine Rousseau ◽  
Sylvie Dufour ◽  
Laurent M. Sachs

Post-embryonic acute developmental processes mainly allow the transition from one life stage in a specific ecological niche to the next life stage in a different ecological niche. Metamorphosis, an emblematic type of these post-embryonic developmental processes, has occurred repeatedly and independently in various phylogenetic groups throughout metazoan evolution, such as in cnidarian, insects, molluscs, tunicates, or vertebrates. This review will focus on metamorphoses and developmental transitions in vertebrates, including typical larval metamorphosis in anuran amphibians, larval and secondary metamorphoses in teleost fishes, egg hatching in sauropsids and birth in mammals. Two neuroendocrine axes, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/interrenal axes, are central players in the regulation of these life transitions. The review will address the molecular and functional evolution of these axes and their interactions. Mechanisms of integration of internal and environmental cues, and activation of these neuroendocrine axes represent key questions in an “eco-evo-devo” perspective of metamorphosis. The roles played by developmental transitions in the innovation, adaptation, and plasticity of life cycles throughout vertebrates will be discussed. In the current context of global climate change and habitat destruction, the review will also address the impact of environmental factors, such as global warming and endocrine disruptors on hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/interrenal axes, and regulation of developmental transitions.

2021 ◽  
Yuri Kawaguchi ◽  
Masaki Tomonaga ◽  
Ikuma Adachi

AbstractPrevious studies have revealed that non-human primates can differentiate the age category of faces. However, the knowledge about age recognition in non-human primates is very limited and whether non-human primates can process facial age information in a similar way to humans is unknown. As humans have an association between time and space (e.g., a person in an earlier life stage to the left and a person in a later life stage to the right), we investigated whether chimpanzees spatially represent conspecifics’ adult and infant faces. Chimpanzees were tested using an identical matching-to-sample task with conspecific adult and infant face stimuli. Two comparison images were presented vertically (Experiment 1) or horizontally (Experiment 2). We analyzed whether the response time was influenced by the position and age category of the target stimuli, but there was no evidence of correspondence between space and adult/infant faces. Thus, evidence of the spatial representation of the age category was not found. However, we did find that the response time was consistently faster when they discriminated between adult faces than when they discriminated between infant faces in both experiments. This result is in line with a series of human face studies that suggest the existence of an “own-age bias.” As far as we know, this is the first report of asymmetric face processing efficiency between infant and adult faces in non-human primates.

Hannah S. Tiffin ◽  
Michael J. Skvarla ◽  
Erika T. Machtinger

2021 ◽  
Denner Manthay Potin ◽  
Anderson Vinnicius Arruda Machado ◽  
Paulo Roberto Ramos Barbosa ◽  
Jorge Braz Torres

Abstract Mortality of agricultural pests caused by arthropod predators is a valuable ecosystem service for crop production. The earwig, Euborellia annulipes (Lucas), attacks different pest species in various crop ecosystems, including larvae and pupae of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis (Boh.). Despite such biological control, cotton pest management remains heavily dependent on synthetic insecticides. In this study, multiple factors were assessed to measure the selectivity of insecticides used against sap-sucking and chewing cotton pests for two E. annulipes populations. Nymphs and adults of E. annulipes were exposed to the insecticides in two ways: ingestion of contaminated prey, and contact with dried residues on either inert surfaces or treated plants bearing prey. Pymetrozine, chlorantraniliprole, and spinetoram had little effect on the predator regardless the tested earwig population, life stage, or the route of exposure. Cyantraniliprole affected the predator in some life stages and through some types of contact. Pyriproxyfen was harmless to adult earwigs, but prevented normal development of nymphs to adults. Chlorfenapyr, indoxacarb, lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, and malathion were harmful to the predator regardless earwig life stage or method of exposure. The negative impact was diminished when exposure occurred on plants with predator allowed to shelter in the soil. The results indicate that insecticide selectivity outcome is a multi-factor driven by the insecticide, predator life stage and the redator’s behavior. Therefore, testing different predator life stages via several routes of exposure, without denying the insect the opportunity to engage in its normal behaviors can provide better estimates of insecticide selectivity.

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