Separations
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Separations ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 19
Author(s):  
José Gustavo Ronderos-Lara ◽  
Hugo Saldarriaga-Noreña ◽  
Mario Alfonso Murillo-Tovar ◽  
Laura Alvarez ◽  
Josefina Vergara-Sánchez ◽  
...  

This study evaluated the distribution and potential estrogenic risk of the presence of bisphenol A (BPA), 4-nonylphenol (4NP), naproxen (NPX), ibuprofen (IBU), 17-β-estradiol (E2) and 17-α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) in water and sediments of the Apatlaco river micro-basin (Morelos, Mexico). The concentration of the determined compounds ranged between <LOD to 86.40 ng·L−1 and <LOD to 3.97 ng g−1 in water and sediments, respectively. The Log Kd distribution obtained (from 1.05 to 1.91 L Kg−1) indicates that the compounds tend to be adsorbed in sediments, which is probably due to the hydrophobic interactions confirmed by the significant correlations determined mainly between the concentrations and parameters of total organic carbon (TOC), total suspended solids (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Of five sites analyzed, four presented estrogenic risk due to the analyzed endocrine-disrupting compounds (EEQE2 > 1 ng·L−1).


Separations ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 18
Author(s):  
Cristian D’Ovidio ◽  
Martina Bonelli ◽  
Enrica Rosato ◽  
Angela Tartaglia ◽  
Halil İbrahim Ulusoy ◽  
...  

In recent years, major attention has been focused on microextraction procedures that allow high recovery of target analytes, regardless of the complexity of the sample matrices. The most used techniques included liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid-phase extraction (SPE), solid-phase microextraction (SPME), dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS), and fabric-phase sorptive extraction (FPSE). These techniques manifest a rapid development of sample preparation techniques in different fields, such as biological, environmental, food sciences, natural products, forensic medicine, and toxicology. In the biological and forensic fields, where a wide variety of drugs with different chemical properties are analyzed, the sample preparation is required to make the sample suitable for the instrumental analysis, which often includes gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass detectors or tandem mass detectors (MS/MS). In this review, we have focused our attention on the biological and forensic application of these innovative procedures, highlighting the major advantages and results that have been accomplished in laboratory and clinical practice.


Separations ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 15
Author(s):  
Oleg V. Rodinkov ◽  
Alexey Y. Pisarev ◽  
Leonid N. Moskvin ◽  
Aleksandra S. Bugaichenko ◽  
Pavel N. Nesterenko

In this study, a novel approach in headspace gas chromatographic analysis using the selective absorption of the gas extractant during concentration of the analytes was developed. The carbon dioxide used as the gas extractant was removed from the sample flow by passing it through a column packed with microdispersed sodium hydroxide granules. The analytical capabilities of the suggested method were illustrated by the determination of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in water. We established that this method allows the preconcentration of analytes in the gas phase to be increased proportionally to the volume ratios of the gas extractant before and after absorption, while the analyte limits of detection decrease 30-fold. For example, benzene can be detected in water at a concentration of 0.5 μg/L.


Separations ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 17
Author(s):  
Valentin Ion ◽  
Irina Ielciu ◽  
Anca-Gabriela Cârje ◽  
Daniela Lucia Muntean ◽  
Gianina Crişan ◽  
...  

The Hypericum genus contains one of the few genera of flowering plants that contains a species with authorization for marketing as a traditional medicine, H. perforatum. Due to the fact that this is a large genus, comprising numerous species, a large amount of interest has been shown over the years in the study of its various pharmacological activities. The chemical composition of these species is quite similar, containing compounds belonging to the class of phloroglucinol derivatives, naphthodianthrones, phenols, flavonoids and essential oils. Taking all of this into consideration, the present study aims to offer an overview of the species of the genus from the point of view of their extraction techniques and analysis methods. An extensive study on the scientific literature was performed, and it revealed a wide range of solvents and extraction methods, among which ethanol and methanol, together with maceration and ultrasonication, are the most frequent. Regarding analysis methods, separation and spectral techniques are the most employed. Therefore, the present study provides necessary data for future studies on the species of the genus, offering a complete overview and a possible basis for their development.


Separations ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 16
Author(s):  
Juraj Piestansky ◽  
Andrea Forgacsova ◽  
Dominika Olesova ◽  
Jaroslav Galba ◽  
Peter Mikus ◽  
...  

Neurotransmitters (NT) are widely distributed in the central nervous system. These molecules are important for many physiological processes and the function of the immune system. Imbalance of NT are linked to numerous neurological disorders and diseases, including tauopathies. Here, a targeted approach based on on-line combination of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was validated and applied to the quantitative analysis of nine NT (acetylcholine, choline, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid, glutamine, pyroglutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid), tryptophan and its metabolite kynurenine in brain tissue samples of a rat model for tauopathy. The applied analytical method was characterized by excellent validation parameters for all analytes, such as limits of detection in the range of 0.01–1.70 µg/mL, regression coefficients of the calibration curves ≥ 0.9946, intra-day and inter-day precision expressed as coefficient of variation in the range of 0.6–11.9% and 0.6–14.4%, and accuracy in the range of 87.6–107.1% and 87.2–119.6%. Our analytical approach led to the identification of increased levels of choline and γ-aminobutyric acid in pons, and elevated concentration levels of pyroglutamate in medulla oblongata. These findings indicate that NT could play a valuable role in the study and clarification of neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases.


Separations ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 14
Author(s):  
Odi Fawwaz Alrebei ◽  
Abdulkarem I. Amhamed ◽  
Muftah H. El-Naas ◽  
Mahmoud Hayajnh ◽  
Yasmeen A. Orabi ◽  
...  

Gas turbines must now comply with much stricter emission control regulations. In fact, to combat the greenhouse effect, regulatory authorities have drastically reduced allowable emission levels. For example, in less than 12 years, the United States’ Clean Air Act issued the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), which tightened the NOx emission margin of natural gas combustion (from 75 ppm to 10 ppm). On the other hand, despite those efforts, the high demand for energy produced by fossil-fueled gas turbines in power plants has resulted in dramatic increases in anthropogenic CO2 and NOx emitted by gas combustors. Most systems responsible for these undesirable emissions are directly linked to power generation, with gas turbines playing a pivotal role. Yet, gas turbines are still widely used in power plants and will continue to meet the growing demand. Therefore, sequestration and separation techniques such as Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) and Air Separation Units (ASU) are essential to reduce CO2 and NOx emissions while allowing large amounts of power to be generated from these systems. This paper provides an in-depth examination of the current state of the art in alternative working fluids utilized in the power generation industry (i.e., gas turbines, combustion). In addition, this paper highlights the recent contribution of integrating separation techniques, such as air separation, steam methane reforming, and water-gas shifting, to the power generation industry to facilitate a continuous and adequate supply of alternative working fluids.


Separations ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 12
Author(s):  
Renli Ma ◽  
John R. Dean

The former St. Antony’s Lead Works site, now the central part of an urban recreational park (Walker Riverside Park) in the east end of Newcastle upon Tyne (England, UK), has been assessed based on the Pb concentration in topsoil according to recently derived Category 4 Screening Level (C4SL) for public open space–park (POSpark, 1300 mg/kg). The site was divided into eight sampling areas following its physical layout. In total 79 soil samples were collected, characterised for acidity and organic matter content, and analysed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF). The Pb levels in most of the samples, particularly those from the fringes of the site, are below the generic guideline value (down to 70 mg/kg). More than 16% of the samples from nearly all sampling areas, especially those sampling points around the former horizontal condenser flue and main chimney, contain levels of Pb significantly exceeding the limit (up to 206,000 mg/kg). No correlation is found between the Pb concentration in soil samples and their acidity (mostly neutral, pH 7.0 ± 0.5) or organic matter content (15.5 ± 4.1%). Using the Contaminated Land Exposure Assessment (CLEA) model (version 1.071), the site-specific risk assessment criteria (SSAC) for Lead (C4SL child), 2862 mg/kg, is obtained based on adjusted exposure frequency and occupancy period. Nearly 9% of the individual sample Pb concentrations (n = 79) across sample locations B, C, D and H are still above the specific value. Further statistical evaluation based on 95% upper confidence limit confirms that the site still represents a potential human health risk. This is because Pb concentrations, from two areas in the centre of the site (sample locations B and C), are greatly over the SSAC specific threshold (sample mean at location B is 12,350 mg/kg and at location C is 11,745 mg/kg).


Separations ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 13
Author(s):  
Juli Novita Sari ◽  
Karthikeyan Kandasamy ◽  
Yu-Chie Chen

Escherichia coli are common pathogens, whereas E. coli O157:H7 is the most notorious E. coli strain, owing to its high virulence that can cause serious adverse effects and death. E. coli contains abundant peroxidases. Thus, the presence of E. coli can be determined by mixing E. coli with its substrate such as 3,5,3′,5′ tetramethylbenzidines (TMB) for endogenous peroxidase reactions. Under the presence of a high concentration of E. coli, colorless TMB turned to bluish, owing to the generation of the complexity of TMB and its oxidized TMB. To further reduce the detectable cell concentration, we developed an affinity-based method combined with an endogenous peroxidase reaction and mass spectrometric detection to detect E. coli. Affinity probes (diameter: ~20 µm) modified with maltose were generated for the enrichment of E. coli from sample solutions. E. coli trapped by the affinity probes was reacted with TMB in the presence of hydrogen peroxide for endogenous peroxidase reactions. Contactless atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry was used for the detection of the reaction product, oxidized TMB (TMB cationic radical), to indicate the presence of target bacteria. The results showed that the developed method can be used to rapidly determine the presence of E. coli from a sample solution based on the detection of the TMB cationic radicals. The lowest detectable concentration of our method against E. coli O157:H7 in buffers and in complex juice samples was as low as ~100 cfu mL−1.


Separations ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 11
Author(s):  
Qiuhong Xiang ◽  
Kunlun Yang ◽  
Ziwen Chen ◽  
Manman Li ◽  
Yuanqi Zhang ◽  
...  

In order to improve the production efficiency of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) by anaerobic fermentation of food waste and reduce the cost for the production of organic deicing salt (ODS), ceramic microfiltration (MF) membrane separation was applied in the conventional food waste fermenter to build an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). Results showed that the maximum VFA concentration in AnMBR was up to 55.37 g/L. Due to the fact that the MF membrane could realize in situ separation of VFAs, the recovery of VFAs could reach 95.0%; 66.6% higher than that of traditional fermentation reactors. After the application of the MF membrane, more than 20.0% of soluble COD, 40.0% of proteins, and 50.0% of polysaccharides were retained and more than 90.0% of VFAs could be transferred in a timely fashion in the AnMBR system. In addition, the enrichment effect of the MF membrane enhanced enzymatic activities such as protease, α-Glucosidase and acetate kinase, and increased the abundance of some important bacteria for organic acid generation such as Amphibacter, Peptoniphilus and Halomonas, which made a significant contribution to the yield of VFAs. After concentration, evaporation and crystallization, the melting efficiency of obtained ODS can reach more than 90.0% in chloride salts, which was 112.0% of commercial calcium magnesium acetate (CMA). When compared to chloride salts and CMA, ODS was more environmentally-friendly as it can reduce the corrosion of carbon steel and concrete significantly. This study created a new way of converting food waste into a high-value organic deicing agent, realizing the resource utilization of solid waste and reducing the production cost of organic deicing agents.


Separations ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 10
Author(s):  
Huda S. Alhasan ◽  
Nadiyah Alahmadi ◽  
Suhad A. Yasin ◽  
Mohammed Y. Khalaf ◽  
Gomaa A. M. Ali

This work describes the hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (HAP) preparation from eggshell waste and their application as an adsorbent for Cephalexin (Ceph) antibiotic removal from aqueous solutions. Chemical precipitation with phosphoric acid was used to evaluate the feasibility of calcium oxide for HAP preparation. The structural properties of HAP were characterized by X-ray diffraction, which revealed the formation of the hydroxyapatite crystalline phase formation. In addition, transmitting electron spectroscopy showed an irregular shape with a variation in size. The impact of various experimental conditions on the removal efficiency such as the solution’s pH, contact time, HAP mass, solution temperature, and Ceph concentration were studied. Experimental data showed that HAP could remove most Ceph species from aqueous solutions within 1 h at pH = 7 with 70.70% adsorption efficiency utilizing 50 mg of the HAP. The removal process of Ceph species by HAP was kinetically investigated using various kinetic models, and the results showed the suitability of the pseudo-second-order kinetic model for the adsorption process description. Moreover, the removal process was thermodynamically investigated; the results showed that the removal was spontaneous endothermic and related to the randomness increase. The data confirmed that HAP had high efficiency in removing Ceph antibiotics from an aqueous solution.


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