In the review, voltammetric analytical procedures that employ vanadium(IV) and aminopolycarboxylic complexes of V(IV) are presented and discussed. The focus of the paper is on the mechanism of vanadium-catalyzed reactions responsible for the amplification of the analytical signal of Ge(IV). The analytical efficacy of different catalytic systems is compared, and the optimal parameters of the respective procedures are reported.
The continuously rising interest in chemical sensors’ applications in environmental monitoring, for soil analysis in particular, is owed to the sufficient sensitivity and selectivity of these analytical devices, their low costs, their simple measurement setups, and the possibility to perform online and in-field analyses with them. In this review the recent advances in chemical sensors for soil analysis are summarized. The working principles of chemical sensors involved in soil analysis; their benefits and drawbacks; and select applications of both the single selective sensors and multisensor systems for assessments of main plant nutrition components, pollutants, and other important soil parameters (pH, moisture content, salinity, exhaled gases, etc.) of the past two decades with a focus on the last 5 years (from 2017 to 2021) are overviewed.
Four novel peptidoids, derived from the Phe-Arg-His (FRH) peptide motif, were prepared by replacing the histidine heterocycle with triazole and consequent triazole-fluorophore (coumarin) extension and also replacing arginine with less voluminous lysine. So the constructed Phe-Lys-Ala(triazole) (FKA(triazole)) peptidoids bind Cu2+ cations in water with a strong, nanomolar affinity comparable to the parent FRH and its known analogs, demonstrating that triazole can coordinate copper similarly as histidine. Moreover, even short KA(triazole)coumarin showed submicromolar affinity to Cu2+. Only FKA(triazole)coumarin with free amino groups and its shorter analog KA(triazole)coumarin showed strong induced CD spectra upon Cu2+ cation binding. Thus, KA(triazole)coumarin can be considered as the shortest peptidoid sequence with highly sensitive fluorescent and chiral CD response for Cu2+ cation, encouraging further studies with other metal cations. The FKA(triazole) coumarin peptidoids show biorelevant, 10 µM affinity to ds-DNA and ds-RNA, binding within DNA/RNA grooves. Intriguingly, only peptidoid complexes with Cu2+ strongly stabilize ds-DNA and ds-RNA against thermal denaturation, suggesting significant interactions of Cu2+ cation within the DNA/RNA binding site.
A highly sensitive electrochemical DNA sensor for detection of the chemotherapeutic drug idarubicin mediated by Methylene blue (MB) has been developed. DNA from fish sperm has been immobilized at the electropolymerized layers of Azure B. The incorporation of MB into the DNA layers substantially increased the sensor sensitivity. The concentration range for idarubicin determination by cyclic voltammetry was from 1 fM to 0.1 nM, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.3 fM. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the presence of a redox probe ([Fe(CN)6]3−/4−) allowed for the widening of a linear range of idarubicin detection from 1 fM to 100 nM, retaining LOD 0.3 fM. The DNA sensor has been tested in various real and artificial biological fluids with good recovery ranging between 90–110%. The sensor has been successfully used for impedimetric idarubicin detection in medical preparation Zavedos®. The developed DNA biosensor could be useful for the control of the level of idarubicin during cancer therapy as well as for pharmacokinetics studies.
Analysis of peptide biomarkers of pathological states of the organism is often a serious challenge, due to a very complex composition of the cell and insufficient sensitivity of the current analytical methods (including mass spectrometry). One of the possible ways to overcome this problem is sample enrichment by capturing the selected components using a specific solid support. Another option is increasing the detectability of the desired compound by its selective tagging. Appropriately modified and immobilized peptides can be used for these purposes. In addition, they find application in studying the specificity and activity of proteolytic enzymes. Immobilized heterocyclic peptide conjugates may serve as metal ligands, to form complexes used as catalysts or analytical markers. In this review, we describe various applications of immobilized peptides, including selective capturing of cysteine-containing peptides, tagging of the carbonyl compounds to increase the sensitivity of their detection, enrichment of biological samples in deoxyfructosylated peptides, and fishing out of tyrosine–containing peptides by the formation of azo bond. Moreover, the use of the one-bead-one-compound peptide library for the analysis of substrate specificity and activity of caspases is described. Furthermore, the evolution of immobilization from the solid support used in peptide synthesis to nanocarriers is presented. Taken together, the examples presented here demonstrate immobilized peptides as a multifunctional tool, which can be successfully used to solve multiple analytical problems.
Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) is recognized as one of the most reliable methods in transformer fault diagnosis technology. In this paper, three characteristic gases of transformer oil (CO, C2H4, and CH4) were used in conjunction with a Cr-decorated InN monolayer according to first principle calculations. The adsorption performance of Cr–InN for these three gases were studied from several perspectives such as adsorption structures, adsorption energy, electron density, density of state, and band gap structure. The results revealed that the Cr–InN monolayer had good adsorption performance with CO and C2H4, while the band gap of the monolayer slightly changed after the adsorption of CO and C2H4. Additionally, the adsorption property of the Cr–InN monolayer on CH4 was acceptable and a significant response was simultaneously generated. This paper provides the first insights regarding the possibility of Cr-doped InN monolayers for the detection of gases dissolved in oil.
A practical hydrazine-carbothioamide-based fluorescent chemosensor TCC (N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(thiophene-2-carbonyl)hydrazine-1-carbothioamide) was applied for Zn2+ detection. TCC exhibited selective fluorescence emission for Zn2+ and did not show any interference with other metal ions. In particular, TCC was utilized for the detection of Zn2+ in paper strips, zebrafish and real water samples. TCC could detect Zn2+ down to 0.39 μM in the solution phase and 51.13 μM in zebrafish. The association ratio between TCC and Zn2+ was determined to be 2:1 by ESI-mass and Job plot. The sensing mechanism of TCC for Zn2+ was illustrated to be a chelation-enhanced fluorescence process through spectroscopic experiments and theoretical calculations.
The effect of the communication channel size on the transport and subsequent detection of chemical messengers is investigated on millimetric and micrometric channels. The transport of the information carriers, being characterized by an advective and a diffusive contribution, was simulated by varying the flow velocity and the diffusion coefficient. Then, to evaluate the information quality, the Intersymbol Interference (ISI) between two consecutive signals at a specific release delay was estimated. This allowed us to verify that operating under micrometric channel conditions has a larger flow velocity range to obtain completely separated successive signals and smaller release delays can be used between signals. The theoretical results were confirmed by developing a prototype molecular communication platform operating under microfluidic conditions, which enables communication through fluorescent nanoparticles, namely Carbon Quantum Dots (CQDs).
In this work, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas sensors based on zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) decorated with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) working under visible-light illumination with different wavelengths at room temperature are presented. The contribution of localized surface plasmon resonant (LSPR) by Au NPs attached to the ZnO NRs is demonstrated. According to our results, the presence of LSPR not only extends the functionality of ZnO NRs towards longer wavelengths (green light) but also increases the response at shorter wavelengths (blue light) by providing new inter-band gap energetic states. Finally, the sensing mechanism based on LSPR Au NPs is proposed.
In this study, a paper-integrated analytical device that combined a paper-based colorimetric assay with a paper-based cell culture platform was developed for the in situ detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in three-dimensional (3D)-cultured, live prostate cancer cells. Two kinds of paper substrates were fabricated using a simple wax-printing methodology to form the cell culture and detection zones, respectively. LNCaP cells were seeded directly on the paper substrate and grown in the paper-integrated analytical device. The cell viability and H2S production of LNCaP cells were assessed using a simple water-soluble tetrazolium salt colorimetric assay and H2S-sensing paper, respectively. The H2S-sensing paper showed good sensitivity (sensitivity: 6.12 blue channel intensity/μM H2S, R2 = 0.994) and a limit of quantification of 1.08 μM. As a result, we successfully measured changes in endogenous H2S production in 3D-cultured, live LNCaP cells within the paper-integrated analytical device while varying the duration of incubation and substrate concentration (L-cysteine). This paper-integrated analytical device can provide a simple and effective method to investigate H2S signaling pathways and drug screening in a 3D culture model.