In this study, we aimed to prepare and characterise hydrogel formulations using cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), alginate (Alg), and polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA). The CNC/Alg/PEGDA formulations were formed using a double network crosslinking approach. Firstly, CNC was extracted from oil palm trunk, and the size and morphology of the CNCs were characterised using TEM analysis. Secondly, different formulations were prepared using CNCs, Alg, and PEGDA. The mixtures were crosslinked with Ca2+ ions and manually extruded using a syringe before being subjected to UV irradiation at 365 nm. The shear-thinning properties of the formulations were tested prior to any crosslinking, while the determination of storage and loss modulus was conducted post extrusion after the Ca2+ ion crosslink using a rheometer. For the analysis of swelling behaviour, the constructs treated with UV were immersed in PBS solution (pH 7.4) for 48 h. The morphology of the UV crosslinked construct was analysed using SEM imaging. The extracted CNC exhibited rod-like structures with an average diameter and length of around 7 ± 2.4 and 113 ± 20.7 nm, respectively. Almost all CNC/Alg/PEGDA formulations (pre-gel formulation) displayed shear-thinning behaviour with the power-law index η < 1, and the behaviour was more prominent in the 1% [w/v] Alg formulations. The CNC/Alg/PEGDA with 2.5% and 4% [w/v] Alg displayed a storage modulus dominance over loss modulus (G′ > G″) which suggests good shape fidelity. After the hydrogel constructs were subjected to UV treatment at 365 nm, only the F8 construct [4% CNC: 4% Alg: 40% PEGDA] demonstrated tough and flexible characteristics that possibly mimic the native articular cartilage property due to a similar water content percentage (79.5%). In addition, the small swelling ratio of 4.877 might contribute to a minimal change of the 3D construct’s geometry. The hydrogel revealed a rough and wavy surface, and the pore size ranged from 3 to 20 µm. Overall, the presence of CNCs in the double network hydrogel demonstrated importance and showed positive effects towards the fabrication of a potentially ideal 3D bioprinted scaffold.
The continuous expansion of the market demand and scale of commercial amidoxime chelating resins has caused large amounts of resin to be discarded around the world. In this study, the waste amidoxime chelating resin was reutilized as an adsorbent for the removal and recovery of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The physical morphology and chemical composition of the waste amidoxime chelating resin (WAC-resin) from the factory was characterized by the elemental analyzer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The influence of the initial metal ions concentration, contact time, temperature and the solution pH on the adsorption performance of the metal ions was explored by batch experiments. It was shown that the optimal pH was 4. Kinetic studies revealed that adsorption process corresponded with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the adsorption isotherm was consistent with the Langmuir model. At room temperature, the adsorption capacities of WAC-resin for Pb2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ reached 114.6, 93.4, 24.4 and 20.7 mg/g, respectively.
Special materials are required in many applications to fulfill specific medical or industrial necessities. Biodegradable metallic materials present many attractive properties, especially mechanical ones correlated with good biocompatibility with vivant bodies. A biodegradable iron-based material was realized through electric arc-melting and induction furnace homogenization. The new chemical composition obtained presented a special property named SME (shape memory effect) based on the martensite transformation. Preliminary results about this special biodegradable material with a new chemical composition were realized for the chemical composition and structural and thermal characterization. Corrosion resistance was evaluated in Ringer’s solution through immersion tests for 1, 3, and 7 days, the solution pH was measured in time for 3 days with values for each minute, and electro-corrosion was measured using a potentiostat and a three electrode cell. The mass loss of the samples during immersion and electro-corrosion was evaluated and the surface condition was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). SME was highlighted with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results confirm the possibility of a memory effect of the materials in the wrought case and a generalized corrosion (Tafel and cyclic potentiometry and EIS) with the formation of iron oxides and a corrosion rate favorable for applications that require a longer implantation period.
The waste pomelo peel was pyrolyzed at 400 °C to prepare biochar and used as adsorbent to remove norfloxacin (NOR) from simulated wastewater. The adsorption conditions of norfloxacin by biochar were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). On the basis of single-factor experiment, the adsorption conditions of biochar dosage, solution pH and reaction temperature were optimized by Box-Behnken Design (BBD), and the quadratic polynomial regression model of response value Y1 (NOR removal efficiency) and Y2 (NOR adsorption capacity) were obtained respectively. The results show that the two models are reasonable and reliable. The influence of single factor was as follows: solution pH > biochar dosage > reaction temperature. The interaction between biochar dosage and solution pH was very significant. The optimal adsorption conditions after optimization were as follows: biochar dosage = 0.5 g/L, solution pH = 3, and reaction temperature = 45 °C. The Y1 and Y2 obtained in the verification experiment were 75.68% and 3.0272 mg/g, respectively, which were only 2.38% and 0.0242 mg/g different from the theoretical predicted values of the model. Therefore, the theoretical model constructed by response surface methodology can be used to optimize the adsorption conditions of norfloxacin in water.
Combining intelligent and active packaging serves the dual purpose of detecting color changes in food that reflect changes in its quality and prolonging its shelf life. This study developed an intelligent and active packaging system made from the cellulose of Acetobacter xylinum and assessed its ability to detect changes in the quality and to increase shelf-life of packaged fresh beef. The properties of the intelligent packaging’s sensor and active packaging films were determined. The application of this system to fresh beef stored at room temperature (28 ± 2 °C) for 24 h was tested. The color of the bromothymol blue (BTB) solution (pH 2.75) in the indicator of the intelligent packaging system changed from orange to dark green to indicate that beef quality changed from fresh to rotten. The meat treated with the active packaging with 10% and 15% garlic extract decayed on the 16th h. In contrast, the meat treated with the active packaging without the garlic extracts rotted on the 12th h. The shift in the indicator’s color was linearly related to the total plate count (TPC), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), and pH of the meat packaged using the active packaging system. Therefore, BTB solution (pH 2.75) can be used as an intelligent packaging indicator that will allow consumers to assess the quality of packaged meat easily. As an antimicrobial agent, the addition of 10–15% garlic extract to the active packaging films can help delay the spoilage of packaged beef.
Novel Uracil-modified chitosan (UCs) adsorbent has successfully been synthesized through a four-step method during which the amino groups of chitosan have been protected, then epoxy nuclei have been incorporated, afterwards the latter have been opened using 6-amino-1,3-dimethyl uracil, and finally the amino groups have been regained via removing the protection. Its structure was checked using FTIR, XRD and SEM techniques. The adsorption capacity of UCs for anionic Congo Red (CR) dye was studied under various conditions. It decreased significantly with increasing the solution pH value and dye concentration, while increased with increasing temperature. The adsorption of UCs for CR dye at different temperatures, solution pH and dye concentrations fitted to the kinetic model of pseudo-second order and Elovich model. The intraparticle diffusion model showed that the adsorption process involves multi-step process. The isotherm of CR dye adsorption by UCs conforms to the Langmuir isotherm model indicating the monolayer nature of adsorption. The maximum monolayer coverage capacity, qmax, was 434.78 mg g−1. Studying the thermodynamic showed that the adsorption of CR dye onto UCs was endothermic as illustrated from the positive value of enthalpy (21.37 kJ mol−1). According to the values of ΔG°, the adsorption process was spontaneous at all selected temperatures. The value of ΔS° showed an increase in randomness for the adsorption of CR dye by UCs. The value of activation energy was 18.40 kJ mol−1.
AbstractIn this study, amorphous hydrous titanium dioxide was synthesized by a facile precipitation method at room temperature, aiming to effectively remove thallium(I) from water. The titanium dioxide prepared using ammonia as precipitant (TiO2I) is more effective for thallium(I) uptake than the one synthesized with sodium hydroxide (TiO2II). The TiO2 obtained particles are amorphous, aggregates of many nanoparticles and irregular in shape. The thallium(I) uptake increases with the rise of solution pH value. Under neutral pH conditions, the maximal thallium(I) adsorption capacities of TiO2I and TiO2II are 302.6 and 230.3 mg/g, respectively, outperforming most of the reported adsorbents. The amorphous TiO2 has high selectivity towards thallium(I) in the presence of multiple cations such as K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+. Moreover, the TiO2I is efficient in removing thallium(I) from real river water and mining wastewater. Additionally, the spent TiO2I can be regenerated using hydrochloric acid solution and reused. The Tl(I) adsorption is achieved via replacing the H+ in hydroxyl group on the surface of TiO2 and forming inner-sphere surface complexes. Owing to its high efficiency, facile synthesis and environmental friendliness, the TiO2I has the potential to be used as an alternative adsorbent to remove Tl(I) from water.
This study investigated the bacterial removal using TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) modified with poly-amidoamine dendrimer macromolecule (PAMAM, G3). The PAMAM G3/TiO2 (nanohybrid) was used to specify antibacterial properties via broth microdilution (MBC-Minimum Bactericidal Concentration and MIC-Minimum Inhibitory Concentration- determination), paper disc diffusion, and surface plate count methods. The nanohybrid was characterized via the different techniques. The effects of different factors including initial bacteria count, run time, solution pH, and the nanohybrid concentration were studied. The nanohybrid cytotoxicity was studied on AGS and MKN45 cells line by MTT assay. It was revealed that the nanohybrid was effective in intercepting both bacterial strains growth. The MIC value for S. aureus and E. coli were determined to be 4 and 2 μg/mL, respectively. The MBC value for both strains were calculated to be 32 μg/mL. The results showed removal efficiency of 100% for S. aureus and E. coli bacteria in optimum situation. The decrease in cell viability in the dosage of 32 μg/mL after 72 h treatment for AGS and MKN45 cells line were shown to be 6.2 and 4.6%, respectively. The nanohybrid was able to decrease the S. aureus and E. coli count in solution, which meets the drinking water criterions aligned with WHO guidelines.
Objective: The focus of our research was to create a fairly sensitive HPLC stratagem for determining telmisartan (TLM) and azelnidipine (AEL) in bulk and tablet types.
Methods: Analysis of TLM and AEL was performed on a “C18 Kromasil stationary column (5 µm, 250 mm × 4.6 mm)”. The mobile phase was made of 0.1M NaH2PO4 solution (pH 3.5) and methanol at a comparative volume ratio of 50% each. The analysis of TLM and AEL was isocratic, with the flow velocity adjusted at 1.0 ml/min and indeed, the TLM and AEL analysis was done at 256 nm using a PDA device sensor. TLM and AEL were stressed with acid, peroxide, dry heat, alkali, and sunlight-induced settings.
Results: The retention/elution periods for the TLM and AEL were observed at 2.225 min and 3.178 min, respectively. The HPLC stratagem developed have a straight-line relation with relative concentrations in the ranges of 20-60 µg/ml for TLM and 4-12 µg/ml for AEL. The LOQ’s for TLM and AEL were 0.2516 μg/ml and 0.0871 μg/ml, respectively. The validation investigational findings done for TLM and AEL with the established sensitive HPLC stratagem were passed out in conformity with the ICH standards.
Conclusion: The established sensitive HPLC stratagem was shown as competent for the quality check of bulk samples of TLM and AEL throughout batch release as well as in the course of TLM and AEL stability investigations.