economic burden
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2022 ◽  
Vol 28 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Nasrin Sargazi ◽  
Rajabali Daroudi ◽  
Kazem Zendehdel ◽  
Farnaz Amouzegar Hashemi ◽  
Mamak Tahmasebi ◽  

Public Health ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 203 ◽  
pp. 65-74
X. An ◽  
L. Xiao ◽  
X. Yang ◽  
X. Tang ◽  
F. Lai ◽  

Molbank ◽  
10.3390/m1314 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 (1) ◽  
pp. M1314
Viola Noti ◽  
Dimitra Hadjipavlou-Litina

Over the last decade, there has been an increasing effort to fight inflammatory conditions establishing new multitarget approaches. Chronic inflammation is implicated in many multifactorial diseases, constituting a great economic burden and a chronic health problem. In an attempt to develop new potent multifunctional anti-inflammatory agents, a cinnamic-pyrrole hybrid (6) was synthesized and screened for its antioxidant and anti-Lipoxygenase potential. The new compound, in comparison with its pyrrole precursor (4), showed improved biological activities. In silico calculations were performed to predict its drug-likeness. The examined derivative is considered orally bioavailable according to Lipinski’s rule of five. Compound 6 could be used as a lead for the synthesis of more effective hybrids.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-05
Fé Fernández Hernández ◽  
Efraín Sánchez González

Introduction: In the Health Economy research context usually researches are assuming that the probability of the morbidity attributable to smoking is equal to the probability of the health spend attributable to smoking. Also is attributed the whole health spend because of active smokers to smoking. To solve this limitation, the authors suggested a new rate to measure the smoking economic burden by morbidity. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility from a new rate to measure the smoking economic burden by morbidity. Methods: Was made a bibliographic research to describe the estimation process from the smoking economic burden by morbidity. Were utilized as theoretical method the analysis and synthesis, the comparative and the systematization. As empiric methods were used the Principle of Multiplication and the bibliographic research. Results: The rate designed solves the limitation identified during the research about the estimation of the smoking economic burden by morbidity. Conclusion: The new rate will provide a better estimation from the smoking economic burden by morbidity. It application will may identify the role of active smokers and passive smokers in the formation of the smoking economic burden. However, it application must be agree to the supposes identified.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Chaorong Bian ◽  
Feng Peng ◽  
Haibin Guo ◽  
Kejin Chen

Based on the data of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in Changzhou obtained by the Disabled Persons’ Federation, this study sampled some children with CP and investigated their survival status, treatment cost, and family burden so as to provide scientific decision-making basis and policy suggestions for coping with disease hazards and improving children’s quality of life. In this study, a simple random sampling method was used to conduct household surveys of the selected children with CP. The economic burden of CP is measured by direct and indirect methods, and the quality of life of patients of children with CP and their families is analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by the EuroQol Five Dimensions (EQ-5D) Questionnaire. The average family economic burden of each case of CP in Changzhou was about 4,188,500 yuan, of which the direct medical burden was 205,800 yuan and the indirect economic burden was 3,982,700 yuan. The socioeconomic burden of CP in Changzhou is as high as about 2.244 billion yuan. From the EQ-5D measurement results of 55 children with CP, the average index score was 0.423, which was lower than the national general population level. The proportions of patients with CP who have problems in the five aspects of action, self-care, daily activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression are 72.73%, 81.82%, 81.82%, 83.64%, and 92.73%, respectively, which are significantly higher than those of the national general population. The average score of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) is 58.09, which is significantly lower than the national general population level. The only major factor affecting the quality of life of patients with CP and their families is the health status represented by the EQ-5D score. To liberate and develop the labor ability of patients and their direct caregivers through clinical treatment, rehabilitation, and special education is the most effective way to reduce the socioeconomic burden of CP. Relevant government departments should perform their duties, integrate social assistance resources, implement early intervention, and launch targeted support and assistance policy.

2022 ◽  
Kolawole Damilare Ogundeji ◽  
Patrone Rebecca Risenga ◽  
Gloria Thupayagale-Tshweneagae

Abstract Background: The literature is replete with family impoverishment resulting from out of pocket healthcare financing on the Africa continent. In Nigeria the healthcare insurance scheme is evolving and requires wider coverage. The aim of this study is to examine catastrophic household expenditure emanating from daily or alternate day wound dressing.Methods. The study was based on a descriptive cross-sectional research design to investigate the economic burden of daily or alternate day wound dressing among hospitalized patients in selected teaching hospitals in south west Nigeria. The inclusion criteria focused on inpatients about to be discharged or already spent minimum of four weeks in hospital. The data collection instrument was pre-tested with a coefficient of stability of 0.774. Respondents were selected via convenience sampling while an interview administered questionnaire was used to elicit information on wound care from patients in medical surgical wards. Covid-19 protocols were strictly adhered to and ethical approval was sought from each hospital.Results: The result revealed that the mean age of the respondents was 44.95 ± 16.12. Two-thirds were men who are artisans and traders with only secondary school education. Over 70% of the respondents have between 5 and 10 family members, more than 50% earn less than ₦50000 per month. The majority have no comorbidities (79.5%), about 50% were on daily dressing which required 1–5 moderate or major dressing packs per week. The length of hospital stay for the majority of the respondents (85.3%) was less than 11 weeks.Conclusions: The daily or alternate day wound dressing requires a financial input beyond the coping capacity of the indigenous Nigerian families. The Nigerian government should scale up coverage of health insurance scheme to cover artisans, small traders and other low income earners to reduce the incidence of catastrophic household expenditure.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Mehdi Rezaee ◽  
Khosro Keshavarz ◽  
Sadegh Izadi ◽  
Abdosaleh Jafari ◽  
Ramin Ravangard

Abstract Background Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic debilitating disease that imposes a heavy socioeconomic burden on societies. This study aimed to determine the economic burden of MS on patients using the first (CinnoVex and ReciGen) and second (Fingolimod and Natalizumab) drug therapy lines. Methods This cost of illness study was an economic evaluation carried out as cross-sectional research in 2019 in southern Iran. A total of 259 patients were enrolled in two lines of drug therapy (178 patients in the first line and 81 ones in the second). The prevalence-based approach and the bottom-up approach were used to collect cost information and to calculate the costs from the societal perspective, respectively. The human capital approach was applied to calculate indirect costs. To collect the required data a researcher-made data collection form was utilized. The data were obtained using the information available in the patients’ medical records and insurance invoices as well as their self-reports or that of their companions. Results The results showed that the annual costs of MS in the first and second lines of drug therapy per patient were $ 1919 and $ 4082 purchasing power parity (PPP), respectively, and in total, $ 2721 PPP in 2019. The highest mean costs in both lines were those of direct medical costs, of which purchasing the main medicines in both lines accounted for the highest. Conclusion Considering the findings of this study and in order to reduce the burden of the disease, the following suggestions are presented: providing necessary facilities for the production of MS drugs in the country; proper and equitable distribution of neurologists; expanding the provision of home care services; and using the technologies related to the Internet, including WhatsApp, to follow up the MS patients’ treatment.

The Analyst ◽  
2022 ◽  
Guozhen He ◽  
Tao Dong ◽  
Zhaochu Yang ◽  
Are Branstad ◽  
Lan Huang ◽  

Chronic Obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has become the third leading causes of global death. Insufficiency in early-diagnosis and treatment of COPD, especially COPD exacerbation, leads to tremendous economic burden and...

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