medical costs
Recently Published Documents





Jesse D. Malkin ◽  
Eric A. Finkelstein ◽  
Drishti Baid ◽  
Ada Alqunaibet ◽  
Sami Almudarra ◽  

Background: The prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) has been increasing in Saudi Arabia. Aim: Our objective was to estimate the effect of NCDs on direct medical costs and workforce productivity in Saudi Arabia. Methods: To estimate direct medical costs, we estimated the unit cost of treating 10 NCDs, then multiplied the unit cost by disease prevalence and summed across diseases. To estimate workforce productivity losses, we multiplied gross domestic product per person in the labour force by the loss in productivity from each NCD and the prevalence in the labour force of each NCD. Results: We estimated annual direct medical costs of 11.8 billion international dollars (Int$) for the 10 NCDs assessed (13.6% of total annual health expenditure). We estimated workforce productivity losses of Int$ 75.7 billion (4.5% of gross domestic product). Conclusion: The economic burden of NCDs in Saudi Arabia – particularly the effect on worker productivity – is substantial.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Ju-Yi Hsu ◽  
Chee-Jen Chang ◽  
Jur-Shan Cheng

AbstractIndividuals diagnosed with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (mTNBC) suffer worse survival rates than their metastatic non-TNBC counterparts. There is little information on survival, treatment patterns, and medical costs of mTNBC patients in Asia. Therefore, this study aimed to examine 5-year survival, regimens of first-line systemic therapy, and healthcare costs of mTNBC patients in Taiwan. Adult females newly diagnosed with TNBC and non-TNBC as well as their survival data, treatment regimens and costs of health services were identified and retrieved from the Cancer Registry database, Death Registry database, and National Health Insurance (NHI) claims database. A total of 9691 (19.27%) women were identified as TNBC among overall BC. The 5-year overall survival rate of TNBC and non-TNBC was 81.28% and 86.50%, respectively, and that of mTNBC and metastatic non-TNBC was 10.81% and 33.46%, respectively. The majority of mTNBC patients received combination therapy as their first-line treatment (78.14%). The 5-year total cost in patients with metastatic non-TNBC and with mTNBC was NTD1,808,693 and NTD803,445, respectively. Higher CCI scores were associated with an increased risk of death and lower probability of receiving combination chemotherapy. Older age was associated with lower 5-year medical costs. In sum, mTNBC patients suffered from poorer survival and incurred lower medical costs than their metastatic non-TNBC counterparts. Future research will be needed when there are more treatment options available for mTNBC patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (2) ◽  
pp. 116-126
Dinasari Bekti Pratidina ◽  
Fithria Dyah Ayu Suryanegara ◽  
Diesty Anita Nugraheni

Background: Hypertension is a chronic disease that requires long-term treatment and has an impact on the cost of treatment. The costs will be greater given the loss of productivity, family burden, and social life impacted by hypertension based on patient’s perspective. Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine the costs and clinical outcome of antihypertensive therapy from the patient's perspective and to identify the discrepancies between the costs and the INA-CBGs (Indonesia Case Based Groups) tariff. Methods: The research was an observational study with a cross-sectional design. The targeted population was outpatients who had received antihypertensive therapy for at least 1 month at a private hospital in Yogyakarta. The costs included direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and indirect costs, while the clinical outcomes were patient’s blood pressure. The descriptive analysis was carried out to describe the characteristics of the research subjects, the clinical outcome, and the cost. Analysis of the discrepancies between the costs and the INA-CBGs tariff used the Mann-Whitney test and One-Sample t-test. Results: The results showed that the average direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and indirect costs from the patient’s perspective were IDR359,408.00, IDR24,617.00, and IDR 40,583.00, respectively. There was a significant difference between the real costs and the rate of INA-CBGs based on the results of statistical tests, while the cost discrepancy was IDR5,287,045.00. Conclusion: The direct non-medical costs and indirect costs of hypertensive outpatients were less than the direct medical costs. A significant difference occurred between the real costs and INA CBG’s tariff. Keywords: hypertension, cost consequences, pharmacoeconomics, patient’s perspective

2021 ◽  
pp. 219256822110638
Shingo Morishita ◽  
Toshitaka Yoshii ◽  
Hiroyuki Inose ◽  
Takashi Hirai ◽  
Masato Yuasa ◽  

Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Objectives Laminoplasty (LAMP) is one of the effective methods to successfully achieve surgical decompression in patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM). However, little evidence exists regarding the perioperative complications in LAMP for patients with ossification of the longitudinal ligament (OPLL) compared with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). We aimed to investigate the perioperative complication rates and medical costs of DCM, including OPLL and CSM patients who underwent LAMP using a large national inpatient database. Methods This study identified patients who underwent LAMP for OPLL and CSM from 2010 to 2016 using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database. We compared the incidence of perioperative complications (systemic and local), reoperation rates, medical costs during hospitalization, and mortality were between the OPLL and CSM groups after propensity score matching. Results This study included 22,714 patients (OPLL: 7485 patients, CSM: 15,229 patients). Consequently, 7169 pairs were matched. More perioperative systemic complications were detected in the OPLL group (one complication: 9.1% vs 7.7%; P = .002), especially for pneumonia (.5% vs .2%; P = .001) and dysphagia (.5% vs .2%; P = .004). The local complication rate was also higher in the OPLL group (paralysis: 1.1% vs .6%, P = .006; spinal fluid leakage: .4% vs .1%, P = .002). The hospitalization costs were approximately $2300 higher ($19,024 vs $16,770; P < .001) in the OPLL group. Conclusions More perioperative complications and higher medical costs were noted in patients with OPLL than in patients with CSM who underwent LAMP.

2021 ◽  
Vol 50 (1) ◽  
pp. 157-157
Megan Rech ◽  
Cara Joyce ◽  
Alexander Flannery

2021 ◽  
Xiaoqi Fan ◽  
Zhifan Wang ◽  
Shanshan Huo ◽  
Ziyan Chen ◽  
Weiyan Jian

Abstract Background One of the important ways to reduce medical costs and improve quality of care is to enable physicians to provide standard medical services according to clinical guidelines, and the medical payment system is a significant means of guiding the behaviour of health service providers. This study aims to investigate whether the diagnosis-related group (DRG) payment system can improve the consistency of health services. Method Inpatients with three types of disease—chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and cerebral infarction (CI)—were enrolled from 25 county-level hospitals in a DRG pilot city in China. Inpatients from hospitals that implemented DRG payment were selected as the intervention group, and similar inpatient cases from hospitals that still implemented fee-for-services (FFS) payment were designated as the control group. A propensity matching score (PSM) was used for data matching to control for age, gender and disease severity. The variation of hospitalization expenditures and their trends before and after implementation of the DRG policy were described by using these matched samples. Results After DRG implementation, the standard deviation (SD) of hospitalization expenditures in the COPD, AMI and CI intervention groups decreased by 11094 yuan, 4833 yuan and 425 yuan, respectively, which were 5972, 2484, and 2938 yuan more than that in the control group. In each year after DRG implementation, the interquartile range (IQR) of hospitalization expenditures was smaller in DRG group than that in FFS group. In most years, the degree of variation in costs of the intervention group decreased more than that of the control group. The medians of hospitalization expenditures of the intervention groups were lower than the fixed cost, while most medians of the control groups were higher than the fixed cost. Conclusion A comparison of patients with similar demographics and disease characteristics revealed that patients in the DRG group experienced a smaller degree of variation in hospitalization expenditures, and indicated the expenditures had a tendency to become progressively more concentrated over time. It is suggested that DRG system can promote better consistency in health services and reduce medical costs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (6) ◽  
pp. 10-12
Subhashchandra Daga

Escalating medical costs contribute to poverty in countries with low resources. The drug costs account for 17 percent of medical expenses. Revisiting time-tested, cost-effective drugs can reduce these costs. Some of them find a place in the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children. The list consists of medicines for a basic healthcare system. They are safe and cost-effective. The present paper identifies co-trimoxazole and chloramphenicol as antimicrobials, chloroquine for malaria, adrenaline, theophylline for asthma, and phenobarbital as an anti-epileptic drug that merits consideration for reviving interest in them and reduce drug treatment costs. What is already known about this subject? •       The cost of drugs contributes to rising medical costs. •       Medical expenses push a large population below the poverty line. What does this study add? •       Rediscovering the relevance of old low-cost drugs is essential. •       Revisiting the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children may be useful. •       Drugs such as chloramphenicol and theophylline are such examples.  

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260460
Chi Heon Kim ◽  
Chun Kee Chung ◽  
Yunhee Choi ◽  
Juhee Lee ◽  
Seung Heon Yang ◽  

Objective The demand for treating degenerative lumbar spinal disease has been increasing, leading to increased utilization of medical resources. Thus, we need to understand how the budget of insurance is currently used. The objective of the present study is to overview the utilization of the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) by providing the direct insured cost between patients receiving surgery and patients receiving nonsurgical treatment for degenerative lumbar disease. Methods The NHIS-National Sample Cohort was utilized to select patients with lumbar disc herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis or spondylolysis. A matched cohort study design was used to show direct medical costs of surgery (n = 2,698) and nonsurgical (n = 2,698) cohorts. Non-surgical treatment included medication, physiotherapy, injection, and chiropractic. The monthly costs of the surgery cohort and nonsurgical cohort were presented at initial treatment, posttreatment 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months and yearly thereafter for 10 years. Results The characteristics and matching factors were well-balanced between the matched cohorts. Overall, surgery cohort spent $50.84/patient/month, while the nonsurgical cohort spent $29.34/patient/month (p<0.01). Initially, surgery treatment led to more charge to NHIS ($2,762) than nonsurgical treatment ($180.4) (p<0.01). Compared with the non-surgical cohort, the surgery cohort charged $33/month more for the first 3 months, charged less at 12 months, and charged approximately the same over the course of 10 years. Conclusion Surgical treatment initially led to more government reimbursement than nonsurgical treatment, but the charges during follow-up period were not different. The results of the present study should be interpreted in light of the costs of medical services, indirect costs, societal cost, quality of life and societal willingness to pay in each country. The monetary figures are implied to be actual economic costs but those in the reimbursement system instead reflect reimbursement charges from the government.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Jackleen Azer Abd El-Halim ◽  
Gihan Ismael Gewaifel ◽  
Eman Ahmed Fawzy Darwish ◽  
Ahmed Maher Ramadan ◽  
Gihan Hamdy ElSisi

Abstract Introduction Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is associated with many serious clinical and social consequences. Despite Egypt being classified as a country of low endemicity, the infection is associated with a 15–25% risk of premature death from liver cancer or end-stage liver disease. The national committee of treatment and control of viral hepatitis has already offered a high-quality service for the diagnosis and treatment of CHB on a free basis. The current study aims to estimate the health care resources utilization and the annual direct medical cost associated with different clinical stages of CHB-related disease in Egypt. Methodology The data was retrieved through record review for three months in the General Administration of Hepatitis Viruses Control, Egypt. Then, the data was extrapolated to the population level by multiplying the prevalence in Egypt with a focus on the productive age groups (25–59 years). Results The cost and utilization of different health care resources increase with disease progression. The total annual direct medical costs due to CHB in Egypt is 21.3 L.E. Billion (4.7 Int$ billion/year) for the management of estimated 1,420,700 CHB patients. The direct medical costs among the productive age group (25–59 years) constitute more than half of the total cost (57%). The highest disease burden is encountered among (25–29 years) age group; 2.695 L.E. billion (0.59 Int$ billion/year). Despite liver transplantation phase being associated with the highest annual cost/patient, the number of patients in this stage is the lowest. Then, it only constitutes 0.04% of the disease direct medical cost in the country. The chronic hepatitis clinical stage constitutes 57.26% of the disease direct medical cost in Egypt’s working age group. Conclusion Strengthening the preventive and control measures is mandatory to alleviate the disease’s direct medical costs. Close monitoring of the chronic hepatitis stage is mandatory to prevent disease progression. Enhancement of vaccination efforts will lower the disease prevalence and its cost. The universal health insurance system which is gradually implemented in Egypt nowadays will be a cornerstone in relieving the economic stresses by allowing more access to high-quality health care services.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document