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2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-28
Wei Zhang ◽  
Zeyuan Chen ◽  
Hongyuan Zha ◽  
Jianyong Wang

Sequential product recommendation, aiming at predicting the products that a target user will interact with soon, has become a hotspot topic. Most of the sequential recommendation models focus on learning from users’ interacted product sequences in a purely data-driven manner. However, they largely overlook the knowledgeable substitutable and complementary relations between products. To address this issue, we propose a novel Substitutable and Complementary Graph-based Sequential Product Recommendation model, namely, SCG-SPRe. The innovations of SCG-SPRe lie in its two main modules: (1) The module of interactive graph neural networks jointly encodes the high-order product correlations in the substitutable graph and the complementary graph into two types of relation-specific product representations. (2) The module of kernel-enhanced transformer networks adaptively fuses multiple temporal kernels to characterize the unique temporal patterns between a candidate product to be recommended and any interacted product in a target behavior sequence. Thanks to the seamless integration of the two modules, SCG-SPRe obtains candidate-dependent user representations for different candidate products to compute the corresponding ranking scores. We conduct extensive experiments on three public datasets, demonstrating SCG-SPRe is superior to competitive sequential recommendation baselines and validating the benefits of explicitly modeling the product-product relations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-28
Hao Wang ◽  
Defu Lian ◽  
Hanghang Tong ◽  
Qi Liu ◽  
Zhenya Huang ◽  

Social recommendation has achieved great success in many domains including e-commerce and location-based social networks. Existing methods usually explore the user-item interactions or user-user connections to predict users’ preference behaviors. However, they usually learn both user and item representations in Euclidean space, which has large limitations for exploring the latent hierarchical property in the data. In this article, we study a novel problem of hyperbolic social recommendation, where we aim to learn the compact but strong representations for both users and items. Meanwhile, this work also addresses two critical domain-issues, which are under-explored. First, users often make trade-offs with multiple underlying aspect factors to make decisions during their interactions with items. Second, users generally build connections with others in terms of different aspects, which produces different influences with aspects in social network. To this end, we propose a novel graph neural network (GNN) framework with multiple aspect learning, namely, HyperSoRec. Specifically, we first embed all users, items, and aspects into hyperbolic space with superior representations to ensure their hierarchical properties. Then, we adapt a GNN with novel multi-aspect message-passing-receiving mechanism to capture different influences among users. Next, to characterize the multi-aspect interactions of users on items, we propose an adaptive hyperbolic metric learning method by introducing learnable interactive relations among different aspects. Finally, we utilize the hyperbolic translational distance to measure the plausibility in each user-item pair for recommendation. Experimental results on two public datasets clearly demonstrate that our HyperSoRec not only achieves significant improvement for recommendation performance but also shows better representation ability in hyperbolic space with strong robustness and reliability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-30
Wanyu Chen ◽  
Pengjie Ren ◽  
Fei Cai ◽  
Fei Sun ◽  
Maarten De Rijke

Sequential recommenders capture dynamic aspects of users’ interests by modeling sequential behavior. Previous studies on sequential recommendations mostly aim to identify users’ main recent interests to optimize the recommendation accuracy; they often neglect the fact that users display multiple interests over extended periods of time, which could be used to improve the diversity of lists of recommended items. Existing work related to diversified recommendation typically assumes that users’ preferences are static and depend on post-processing the candidate list of recommended items. However, those conditions are not suitable when applied to sequential recommendations. We tackle sequential recommendation as a list generation process and propose a unified approach to take accuracy as well as diversity into consideration, called multi-interest, diversified, sequential recommendation . Particularly, an implicit interest mining module is first used to mine users’ multiple interests, which are reflected in users’ sequential behavior. Then an interest-aware, diversity promoting decoder is designed to produce recommendations that cover those interests. For training, we introduce an interest-aware, diversity promoting loss function that can supervise the model to learn to recommend accurate as well as diversified items. We conduct comprehensive experiments on four public datasets and the results show that our proposal outperforms state-of-the-art methods regarding diversity while producing comparable or better accuracy for sequential recommendation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Leyi Zhang ◽  
Jun Pan ◽  
Zhen Wang ◽  
Chenghui Yang ◽  
Wuzhen Chen ◽  

Breast cancer lung metastasis has a high mortality rate and lacks effective treatments, for the factors that determine breast cancer lung metastasis are not yet well understood. In this study, data from 1067 primary tumors in four public datasets revealed the distinct microenvironments and immune composition among patients with or without lung metastasis. We used multi-omics data of the TCGA cohort to emphasize the following characteristics that may lead to lung metastasis: more aggressive tumor malignant behaviors, severer genomic instability, higher immunogenicity but showed generalized inhibition of effector functions of immune cells. Furthermore, we found that mast cell fraction can be used as an index for individual lung metastasis status prediction and verified in the 20 human breast cancer samples. The lower mast cell infiltrations correlated with tumors that were more malignant and prone to have lung metastasis. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of the molecular and cellular characteristics and mutation profiles of breast cancer lung metastasis, which may be applicable for prognostic prediction and aid in choosing appropriate medical examinations and therapeutic regimens.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 635
Yong Li ◽  
Luping Wang

Due to the wide application of human activity recognition (HAR) in sports and health, a large number of HAR models based on deep learning have been proposed. However, many existing models ignore the effective extraction of spatial and temporal features of human activity data. This paper proposes a deep learning model based on residual block and bi-directional LSTM (BiLSTM). The model first extracts spatial features of multidimensional signals of MEMS inertial sensors automatically using the residual block, and then obtains the forward and backward dependencies of feature sequence using BiLSTM. Finally, the obtained features are fed into the Softmax layer to complete the human activity recognition. The optimal parameters of the model are obtained by experiments. A homemade dataset containing six common human activities of sitting, standing, walking, running, going upstairs and going downstairs is developed. The proposed model is evaluated on our dataset and two public datasets, WISDM and PAMAP2. The experimental results show that the proposed model achieves the accuracy of 96.95%, 97.32% and 97.15% on our dataset, WISDM and PAMAP2, respectively. Compared with some existing models, the proposed model has better performance and fewer parameters.

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 231
Zikai Da ◽  
Yu Gao ◽  
Zihan Xue ◽  
Jing Cao ◽  
Peizhen Wang

With the rise of deep learning technology, salient object detection algorithms based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are gradually replacing traditional methods. The majority of existing studies, however, focused on the integration of multi-scale features, thereby ignoring the characteristics of other significant features. To address this problem, we fully utilized the features to alleviate redundancy. In this paper, a novel CNN named local and global feature aggregation-aware network (LGFAN) has been proposed. It is a combination of the visual geometry group backbone for feature extraction, an attention module for high-quality feature filtering, and an aggregation module with a mechanism for rich salient features to ease the dilution process on the top-down pathway. Experimental results on five public datasets demonstrated that the proposed method improves computational efficiency while maintaining favorable performance.

Entropy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 114
Ramy Monir ◽  
Daniel Kostrzewa ◽  
Dariusz Mrozek

Singing voice detection or vocal detection is a classification task that determines whether there is a singing voice in a given audio segment. This process is a crucial preprocessing step that can be used to improve the performance of other tasks such as automatic lyrics alignment, singing melody transcription, singing voice separation, vocal melody extraction, and many more. This paper presents a survey on the techniques of singing voice detection with a deep focus on state-of-the-art algorithms such as convolutional LSTM and GRU-RNN. It illustrates a comparison between existing methods for singing voice detection, mainly based on the Jamendo and RWC datasets. Long-term recurrent convolutional networks have reached impressive results on public datasets. The main goal of the present paper is to investigate both classical and state-of-the-art approaches to singing voice detection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Longtao Huangfu ◽  
Biao Fan ◽  
Gangjian Wang ◽  
Xuejun Gan ◽  
Shanshan Tian ◽  

AbstractRapid proliferation and metastasis of gastric cancer (GC) resulted in a poor prognosis in the clinic. Previous studies elucidated that long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) LINC00205 was upregulated in various tumors and participated in tumor progression. The aim of our study was to investigate the regulating role of LINC00205 in tumorigenesis and metastasis of GC. Both public datasets and our data showed that the LINC00205 was highly expressed in GC tissues and several cell lines. Notably, GC patients with high level of LINC00205 had a poor prognosis in our cohort. Mechanistically, knockdown of LINC00205 by shRNAs suppressed GC cells proliferation, migration, invasion remarkably, and induced cell cycle arrest. Based on bioinformatics prediction, we found that LINC00205 might act as a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) through targeting miR-26a. The level of miR-26a had negatively correlated with LINC00205 expression and was decreased among GC cell lines, tissues, and serum samples. Our results for the first time confirmed that miR-26a was a direct target of LINC00205 and might have the potential to become a plasma marker for clinical tumor diagnosis. Indeed, LINC00205 knockdown resulted in the dramatic promotion of miR-26a expression as well as inhibition of miR-26a potential downstream targets, such as HMGA2, EZH2, and USP15. These targets were essential for cell survival and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Importantly, LINC00205 was able to remodel the miR-26a-mediated downstream silence, which identified a new mechanism of malignant transformation of GC cells. In conclusion, this study revealed the regulating role of the LINC00205/miR-26a axis in GC progression and provided a new potential therapeutic strategy for GC treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Junyu Chen ◽  
Haiwei Li ◽  
Liyao Song ◽  
Geng Zhang ◽  
Bingliang Hu ◽  

AbstractDeveloping an efficient and quality remote sensing (RS) technology using volume and efficient modelling in different aircraft RS images is challenging. Generative models serve as a natural and convenient simulation method. Because aircraft types belong to the fine class under the rough class, the issue of feature entanglement may occur while modelling multiple aircraft classes. Our solution to this issue was a novel first-generation realistic aircraft type simulation system (ATSS-1) based on the RS images. It realised fine modelling of the seven aircraft types based on a real scene by establishing an adaptive weighted conditional attention generative adversarial network and joint geospatial embedding (GE) network. An adaptive weighted conditional batch normalisation attention block solved the subclass entanglement by reassigning the intra-class-wise characteristic responses. Subsequently, an asymmetric residual self-attention module was developed by establishing a remote region asymmetric relationship for mining the finer potential spatial representation. The mapping relationship between the input RS scene and the potential space of the generated samples was explored through the GE network construction that used the selected prior distribution z, as an intermediate representation. A public RS dataset (OPT-Aircraft_V1.0) and two public datasets (MNIST and Fashion-MNIST) were used for simulation model testing. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of ATSS-1, promoting further development of realistic automatic RS simulation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Congjun Liu ◽  
Penghui Gu ◽  
Zhiyong Xiao

Retinal vessel segmentation is essential for the detection and diagnosis of eye diseases. However, it is difficult to accurately identify the vessel boundary due to the large variations of scale in the retinal vessels and the low contrast between the vessel and the background. Deep learning has a good effect on retinal vessel segmentation since it can capture representative and distinguishing features for retinal vessels. An improved U-Net algorithm for retinal vessel segmentation is proposed in this paper. To better identify vessel boundaries, the traditional convolutional operation CNN is replaced by a global convolutional network and boundary refinement in the coding part. To better divide the blood vessel and background, the improved position attention module and channel attention module are introduced in the jumping connection part. Multiscale input and multiscale dense feature pyramid cascade modules are used to better obtain feature information. In the decoding part, convolutional long and short memory networks and deep dilated convolution are used to extract features. In public datasets, DRIVE and CHASE_DB1, the accuracy reached 96.99% and 97.51%. The average performance of the proposed algorithm is better than that of existing algorithms.

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