novel biomarkers
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2022 ◽  
Vol 29 ◽  
pp. 8-15
Mami Ishida ◽  
Keiichi Matsuzaki ◽  
Hiroshi Ikai ◽  
Hitoshi Suzuki ◽  
Takashi Kawamura ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 424 ◽  
pp. 127173
Huali Xie ◽  
Xiupin Wang ◽  
Justin JJ van der Hooft ◽  
Marnix H. Medema ◽  
Zhi-Yuan Chen ◽  

Trasias Mukama ◽  
Renée Turzanski Fortner ◽  
Verena Katzke ◽  
Lucas Cory Hynes ◽  
Agnese Petrera ◽  

Abstract Background CA125 is the best available yet insufficiently sensitive biomarker for early detection of ovarian cancer. There is a need to identify novel biomarkers, which individually or in combination with CA125 can achieve adequate sensitivity and specificity for the detection of earlier-stage ovarian cancer. Methods In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we measured serum levels of 92 preselected proteins for 91 women who had blood sampled ≤18 months prior to ovarian cancer diagnosis, and 182 matched controls. We evaluated the discriminatory performance of the proteins as potential early diagnostic biomarkers of ovarian cancer. Results Nine of the 92 markers; CA125, HE4, FOLR1, KLK11, WISP1, MDK, CXCL13, MSLN and ADAM8 showed an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of ≥0.70 for discriminating between women diagnosed with ovarian cancer and women who remained cancer-free. All, except ADAM8, had shown at least equal discrimination in previous case-control comparisons. The discrimination of the biomarkers, however, was low for the lag-time of >9–18 months and paired combinations of CA125 with any of the 8 markers did not improve discrimination compared to CA125 alone. Conclusion Using pre-diagnostic serum samples, this study identified markers with good discrimination for the lag-time of 0–9 months. However, the discrimination was low in blood samples collected more than 9 months prior to diagnosis, and none of the markers showed major improvement in discrimination when added to CA125.

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 96
Mariana Miranda ◽  
Simon Nadel

Sepsis remains an important source of morbidity and mortality in children, despite the development of standardized care. In the last decades, there has been an increased interest in genetic and genomic approaches to early recognition and development of treatments to manipulate the host inflammatory response. This review will present a summary of the normal host response to infection and progression to sepsis, followed by highlighting studies with a focus on gene association studies, epigenetics, and genome-wide expression profiling. The susceptibility (or outcome) of sepsis in children has been associated with several polymorphisms of genes broadly involved in inflammation, immunity, and coagulation. More recently, gene expression profiling has been focused on identifying novel biomarkers, pathways and therapeutic targets, and gene expression-based subclassification. Knowledge of a patient’s individual genotype may, in the not-too-remote future, be used to guide tailored treatment for sepsis. However, at present, the impact of genomics remains far from the bedside of critically ill children.

Anthony Ford ◽  
Daniel Kepple ◽  
Jonathan Williams ◽  
Gabrielle Kolesar ◽  
Colby T. Ford ◽  

The unique biological features of Plasmodium vivax not only make it difficult to control but also to eliminate. For the transmission of the malaria parasite from infected human to the vector, gametocytes play a major role. The transmission potential of a malarial infection is inferred based on microscopic detection of gametocytes and molecular screening of genes in the female gametocytes. Microscopy-based detection methods could grossly underestimate the reservoirs of infection as gametocytes may occur as submicroscopic or as micro- or macro-gametocytes. The identification of genes that are highly expressed and polymorphic in male and female gametocytes is critical for monitoring changes not only in their relative proportions but also the composition of gametocyte clones contributing to transmission over time. Recent transcriptomic study revealed two distinct clusters of highly correlated genes expressed in the P. vivax gametocytes, indicating that the male and female terminal gametocytogeneses are independently regulated. However, the detective power of these genes is unclear. In this study, we compared genetic variations of 15 and 11 genes expressed, respectively, in the female and male gametocytes among P. vivax isolates from Southeast Asia, Africa, and South America. Further, we constructed phylogenetic trees to determine the resolution power and clustering patterns of gametocyte clones. As expected, Pvs25 (PVP01_0616100) and Pvs16 (PVP01_0305600) expressed in the female gametocytes were highly conserved in all geographical isolates. In contrast, genes including 6-cysteine protein Pvs230 (PVP01_0415800) and upregulated in late gametocytes ULG8 (PVP01_1452800) expressed in the female gametocytes, as well as two CPW-WPC family proteins (PVP01_1215900 and PVP01_1320100) expressed in the male gametocytes indicated considerably high nucleotide and haplotype diversity among isolates. Parasite samples expressed in male and female gametocyte genes were observed in separate phylogenetic clusters and likely represented distinct gametocyte clones. Compared to Pvs25, Pvs230 (PVP01_0415800) and a CPW-WPC family protein (PVP01_0904300) showed higher expression in a subset of Ethiopian P. vivax samples. Thus, Pvs230, ULG8, and CPW-WPC family proteins including PVP01_0904300, PVP01_1215900, and PVP01_1320100 could potentially be used as novel biomarkers for detecting both sexes of P. vivax gametocytes in low-density infections and estimating transmission reservoirs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Gongjun Tan ◽  
Binila Baby ◽  
Yuqiu Zhou ◽  
Tianfu Wu

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease which can affect various tissues and organs, posing significant challenges for clinical diagnosis and treatment. The etiology of SLE is highly complex with contributions from environmental factors, stochastic factors as well as genetic susceptibility. The current criteria for diagnosing SLE is based primarily on a combination of clinical presentations and traditional lab testing. However, these tests have suboptimal sensitivity and specificity. They are unable to indicate disease cause or guide physicians in decision-making for treatment. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a more accurate and robust tool for effective clinical management and drug development in lupus patients. It is fortunate that the emerging Omics have empowered scientists in the discovery and identification of potential novel biomarkers of SLE, especially the markers from blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluids (CSF), and other bodily fluids. However, many of these markers have not been carefully validated for clinical use. In addition, it is apparent that individual biomarkers lack sensitivity or specificity. This review summarizes the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic value of emerging biomarkers from recent studies, and discusses the potential of these markers in the development of biomarker panel based diagnostics or disease monitoring system in SLE.

Diana A. Gorog ◽  
Robert F. Storey ◽  
Paul A. Gurbel ◽  
Udaya S. Tantry ◽  
Jeffrey S. Berger ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 14-26
Osama Y Safdar ◽  
Rana M Baghdadi ◽  
Sereen A Alahmadi ◽  
Bana E Fakieh ◽  
Amaal M Algaydi

Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 90
Gagandeep Kaur ◽  
Suraj Singh S. Rathod ◽  
Mohammed M. Ghoneim ◽  
Sultan Alshehri ◽  
Javed Ahmad ◽  

DNA methylation, in the mammalian genome, is an epigenetic modification that involves the transfer of a methyl group on the C5 position of cytosine to derive 5-methylcytosine. The role of DNA methylation in the development of the nervous system and the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease has been an interesting research area. Furthermore, mutations altering DNA methylation affect neurodevelopmental functions and may cause the progression of several neurodegenerative diseases. Epigenetic modifications in neurodegenerative diseases are widely studied in different populations to uncover the plausible mechanisms contributing to the development and progression of the disease and detect novel biomarkers for early prognosis and future pharmacotherapeutic targets. In this manuscript, we summarize the association of DNA methylation with the pathogenesis of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, such as, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington diseases, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and discuss the potential of DNA methylation as a potential biomarker and therapeutic tool for neurogenerative diseases.

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