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RNA ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. rna.079016.121
Chi-Ping Chan ◽  
Dong-Yan Jin

Sensing of pathogen-associated molecular patterns including viral RNA by innate immunity represents the first line of defense against viral infection. In addition to RIG-I-like receptors and NOD-like receptors, several other RNA sensors are known to mediate innate antiviral response in the cytoplasm. Double-stranded RNA-binding protein PACT interacts with prototypic RNA sensor RIG-I to facilitate its recognition of viral RNA and induction of host interferon response, but variations of this theme are seen when the functions of RNA sensors are modulated by other RNA-binding proteins to impinge on antiviral defense, proinflammatory cytokine production and cell death programs. Their discrete and coordinated actions are crucial to protect the host from infection. In this review, we will focus on cytoplasmic RNA sensors with an emphasis on their interplay with RNA-binding partners. Classical sensors such as RIG-I will be briefly reviewed. More attention will be brought to the new insights on how RNA-binding partners of RNA sensors modulate innate RNA sensing and how viruses perturb the functions of RNA-binding partners.

Pascal D Kroh ◽  
Beate C Braun ◽  
Fan Lui ◽  
Peter Müller ◽  
Karin Müller

Abstract As a major spermadhesin first found in the seminal plasma of boars, AWN is described to fulfil a variety of reproduction related tasks. Although being the best investigated boar spermadhesin, information about its interaction with membranes is inconsistent. In this regard, previous reports locate AWN either inside or on the surface of sperm cells and at different regions, depending on the method and antibody used. Here, we localize native AWN in/on epididymal, ejaculated, capacitated and acrosome-reacted boar sperm using epifluorescence and electron microscopy, as well as an analysis of potential lipid binding partners of native and recombinant AWN. By applying a custom-made anti-AWN antibody, localization of AWN in the equatorial segment of ejaculated, capacitated and acrosome-reacted boar sperm was discovered. Electron microscopy showed that AWN is localized both on the sperm surface and on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane, and in close vicinity to the nuclear and both acrosomal membranes of sperm. Analysis of epididymal sperm indicated migration of AWN from the retral postacrosomal part to the equatorial segment during the epididymal passage. In contrast to hypotheses claiming a specific association of AWN to phosphatidylethanolamine and in line with our previous study describing an interaction with phosphatidic acid, the current results show a rather electrostatically-driven binding mechanism of AWN to negative lipids. In conclusion, this work provides new insights into the arrangement of AWN in the equatorial segment that suggest a possible role in sperm-oocyte fusion.

2021 ◽  
Samsuzzoha Mondal ◽  
Samuel Botterbusch ◽  
Karthik Narayan ◽  
Imania Powers ◽  
Jason Zheng ◽  

Endocytosis of transmembrane receptors initiates via molecular interactions between the activated receptor and the endocytic machinery. A specific group of receptors, including the β1-adrenergic receptor (β1-AR), is internalized through a non-clathrin pathway known as Fast Endophilin Mediated Endocytosis (FEME). A key question is: how does the endocytic machinery assemble and how is it modulated by activated receptors during FEME. Here we show that endophilin, a major regulator of FEME, undergoes a phase transition into liquid-like condensates, which facilitates the formation of multi-protein assemblies by enabling the phase partitioning of endophilin binding proteins. The phase transition can be triggered by specific multivalent binding partners of endophilin in the FEME pathway such as the third intracellular loop (TIL) of the β1-AR, and the proline-rich-motifs of lamellipodin (LPD-PRMs). Other endocytic accessory proteins can either partition into, or target interfacial regions of, these condensate droplets. On the membrane, TIL promotes protein clustering in the presence of endophilin and LPD-PRMs. Our results demonstrate how the multivalent interactions between endophilin, LPD-PRMs and TIL regulate protein assembly formation on the membrane, providing mechanistic insights into the priming and initiation steps of FEME.

PLoS Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (12) ◽  
pp. e3001496
Zhiyong Bai ◽  
Jianlin Feng ◽  
Gijs A. C. Franken ◽  
Namariq Al’Saadi ◽  
Na Cai ◽  

Magnesium is essential for cellular life, but how it is homeostatically controlled still remains poorly understood. Here, we report that members of CNNM family, which have been controversially implicated in both cellular Mg2+ influx and efflux, selectively bind to the TRPM7 channel to stimulate divalent cation entry into cells. Coexpression of CNNMs with the channel markedly increased uptake of divalent cations, which is prevented by an inactivating mutation to the channel’s pore. Knockout (KO) of Trpm7 in cells or application of the TRPM7 channel inhibitor NS8593 also interfered with CNNM-stimulated divalent cation uptake. Conversely, KO of CNNM3 and CNNM4 in HEK-293 cells significantly reduced TRPM7-mediated divalent cation entry, without affecting TRPM7 protein expression or its cell surface levels. Furthermore, we found that cellular overexpression of phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRLs), known CNNMs binding partners, stimulated TRPM7-dependent divalent cation entry and that CNNMs were required for this activity. Whole-cell electrophysiological recordings demonstrated that deletion of CNNM3 and CNNM4 from HEK-293 cells interfered with heterologously expressed and native TRPM7 channel function. We conclude that CNNMs employ the TRPM7 channel to mediate divalent cation influx and that CNNMs also possess separate TRPM7-independent Mg2+ efflux activities that contribute to CNNMs’ control of cellular Mg2+ homeostasis.

2021 ◽  
Viola Krenzlin ◽  
Julian Roewe ◽  
Marcel Strueve ◽  
María Martínez-Negro ◽  
Christoph Reinhardt ◽  

AbstractPolyphosphates are linear chains of orthophosphate residues that are present in all living cells. Polyphosphates are released from platelet d-granules and are also produced in bacteria. Polyphosphates are procoagulant in mammalian species and in bacteria are required for energy and phosphate storage, stress resistance, chelation of metal ions and escaping host immunity. Despite these pleiotropic effects, sparse information is available on molecular binding partners of polyphosphates. Here, we used a slide-based human proteome microarray screen for the search of polyphosphate-binding proteins. This approach suggested several novel proteins with relation to the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway. The highest signals were obtained for Disabled-1 (DAB1) and phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase 2B (PIP4K2B). Isothermal titration calorimetry was used for confirmation of DAB1 interactions with long-chain polyphosphates. These results offer new rationale to further investigate the interference of polyphosphates with intracellular signaling pathways.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13271
Christina James ◽  
Christof Lenz ◽  
Henning Urlaub ◽  
Ralph H. Kehlenbach

VAPB (Vesicle-Associated-membrane Protein-associated protein B) is a tail-anchored membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum that can also be detected at the inner nuclear membrane. As a component of many contact sites between the endoplasmic reticulum and other organelles, VAPB is engaged in multiple protein interactions with a plethora of binding partners. A mutant version of VAPB, P56S-VAPB, which results from a single point mutation, is involved in a familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS8). We performed RAPIDS (rapamycin- and APEX-dependent identification of proteins by SILAC) to identify proteins that interact with or are in close proximity to P56S-VAPB. The mutation abrogates the interaction of VAPB with many known binding partners. Here, we identify Sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1), a well-known autophagic adapter protein, as a major interaction/proximity partner of P56S-VAPB. Remarkably, not only the mutant protein, but also wild-type VAPB interacts with SQSTM1, as shown by proximity ligation assays and co-immunoprecipiation experiments.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Anja Pišlar ◽  
Janko Kos

Abstract Background Neurotrophins can activate multiple signalling pathways in neuronal cells through binding to their cognate receptors, leading to neurotrophic processes such as cell survival and differentiation. γ-Enolase has been shown to have a neurotrophic activity that depends on its translocation towards the plasma membrane by the scaffold protein γ1-syntrophin. The association of γ-enolase with its membrane receptor or other binding partners at the plasma membrane remains unknown. Methods In the present study, we used immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence to show that γ-enolase associates with the intracellular domain of the tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) family of tyrosine kinase receptors at the plasma membrane of differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Results In differentiated SH-SY5Y cells with reduced expression of γ1-syntrophin, the association of γ-enolase with the Trk receptor was diminished due to impaired translocation of γ-enolase towards the plasma membrane or impaired Trk activity. Treatment of differentiated SH-SY5Y cells with a γ-Eno peptide that mimics γ-enolase neurotrophic activity promoted Trk receptor internalisation and endosomal trafficking, as defined by reduced levels of Trk in clathrin-coated vesicles and increased levels in late endosomes. In this way, γ-enolase triggers Rap1 activation, which is required for neurotrophic activity of γ-enolase. Additionally, the inhibition of Trk kinase activity by K252a revealed that increased SH-SY5Y cell survival and neurite outgrowth mediated by the γ-Eno peptide through activation of signalling cascade depends on Trk kinase activity. Conclusions These data therefore establish the Trk receptor as a binding partner of γ-enolase, whereby Trk endosomal trafficking is promoted by γ-Eno peptide to mediate its neurotrophic signalling. Graphical Abstract

Bioanalysis ◽  
2021 ◽  
Joshua Zylstra ◽  
Michael A Partridge ◽  
Giane Sumner

Aim: IL-33 is a potential therapeutic target but commercially available assays for the quantitation of systemic IL-33 have poor reliability. Results: In commercial IL-33 kits, interference from endogenous binding partners (e.g., soluble ST2) causes under-quantitation. Mitigating this required acid dissociation and addition of the detection reagent simultaneously with the capture step. This enabled detection of total, reduced (active) levels of IL-33 in human serum (LLOQ 6.25 pg/ml). Conclusion: Acid treatment of serum samples dissociates IL-33 from endogenous binding partners, increasing soluble ST2 tolerance to >1000 ng/ml. The modified method was specific for reduced endogenous IL-33. Analysis of over 300 samples from individuals with and without asthma and with different smoking status revealed no difference in serum IL-33.

Abhijit Gupta ◽  
Arnab Mukherjee

The structure of a protein plays a pivotal role in determining its function. Often, the protein surface’s shape and curvature dictate its nature of interaction with other proteins and biomolecules. However, marked by corrugations and roughness, a protein’s surface representation poses significant challenges for its curvature-based characterization. In the present study, we employ unsupervised machine learning to segment the protein surface into patches. To measure the surface curvature of a patch, we present an algebraic sphere fitting method that is fast, accurate, and robust. Moreover, we use local curvatures to show the existence of “shape complementarity” in protein-protein, antigen-antibody, and protein-ligand interfaces. We believe that the current approach could help understand the relationship between protein structure and its biological function and can be used to find binding partners of a given protein.

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