novel proteins
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mSphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Tiago W. P. Mineo ◽  
Jessica H. Chern ◽  
Amara C. Thind ◽  
Caroline M. Mota ◽  
Santhosh M. Nadipuram ◽  

Neospora caninum is a parasite with veterinary relevance, inducing severe disease in dogs and reproductive disorders in ruminants, especially cattle, leading to major losses. The close phylogenetic relationship to Toxoplasma gondii and the lack of pathogenicity in humans drives an interest of the scientific community toward using N. caninum as a model to study the pathogenicity of T. gondii .

Baoyi Zhu ◽  
Zhanfang Kang ◽  
Sihua Zhu ◽  
Yuying Zhang ◽  
Xiangmao Lai ◽  

Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) is a common urologic disease associated with poorly understood molecular mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the possible involvements of circRNAs (circular RNAs) and circRNA-encoded proteins in BOO development. The rat BOO model was established by the partial bladder outlet obstruction surgery. Differential expression of circRNA and protein profiles were characterized by deep RNA sequencing and iTRAQ quantitative proteomics respectively. Novel proteins encoded by circRNAs were predicted through ORF (open reading frame) selection using the GETORF software and verified by the mass spectrometry in proteomics, combined with the validation of their expressional alterations by quantitative RT-PCR. Totally 3,051 circRNAs were differentially expressed in bladder tissues of rat BOO model with widespread genomic distributions, including 1,414 up-regulated, and 1,637 down-regulated circRNAs. Our following quantitative proteomics revealed significant changes of 85 proteins in rat BOO model, which were enriched in multiple biological processes and signaling pathways such as the PPAR and Wnt pathways. Among them, 21 differentially expressed proteins were predicted to be encoded by circRNAs and showed consistent circRNA and protein levels in rat BOO model. The expression levels of five protein-encoding circRNAs were further validated by quantitative RT-PCR and mass spectrometry. The circRNA and protein profiles were substantially altered in rat BOO model, with great expressional changes of circRNA-encoded novel proteins.

Carlos Enrich ◽  
Albert Lu ◽  
Francesc Tebar ◽  
Carles Rentero ◽  
Thomas Grewal

Membrane contact sites (MCS) are specialized small areas of close apposition between two different organelles that have led researchers to reconsider the dogma of intercellular communication via vesicular trafficking. The latter is now being challenged by the discovery of lipid and ion transfer across MCS connecting adjacent organelles. These findings gave rise to a new concept that implicates cell compartments not to function as individual and isolated entities, but as a dynamic and regulated ensemble facilitating the trafficking of lipids, including cholesterol, and ions. Hence, MCS are now envisaged as metabolic platforms, crucial for cellular homeostasis. In this context, well-known as well as novel proteins were ascribed functions such as tethers, transporters, and scaffolds in MCS, or transient MCS companions with yet unknown functions. Intriguingly, we and others uncovered metabolic alterations in cell-based disease models that perturbed MCS size and numbers between coupled organelles such as endolysosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, or lipid droplets. On the other hand, overexpression or deficiency of certain proteins in this narrow 10–30 nm membrane contact zone can enable MCS formation to either rescue compromised MCS function, or in certain disease settings trigger undesired metabolite transport. In this “Mini Review” we summarize recent findings regarding a subset of annexins and discuss their multiple roles to regulate MCS dynamics and functioning. Their contribution to novel pathways related to MCS biology will provide new insights relevant for a number of human diseases and offer opportunities to design innovative treatments in the future.

2021 ◽  
Vol 48 (4) ◽  
pp. 201-206
Sang-Gu Lee ◽  
Seon-Woo Oh ◽  
Soo-Yun Park ◽  
Hyoun-Min Park ◽  
Eun-Ha Kim ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zhiwei Hou ◽  
Dashun Xu ◽  
Na Deng ◽  
Yan Li ◽  
Luoling Yang ◽  

Mulberry leaves at different positions are different in photosynthetic rate, nutrient substance and feeding impact to silkworms. Here, we investigated the proteomic differences of the first (L1), sixth (L6), and twentieth (L20) mulberry leaves at different stem positions (from top to the base) using a label-free quantitative proteomics approach. L1 contained less developed photosynthetic apparatus but was more active in protein synthesis. L20 has more channel proteins and oxidoreductases relative to L6. Proteins that detected in all measured leaves were classified into three groups according to their expression patterns in L1, L6, and L20. The protein group that displayed the maximum amount in L6 has the highest possibility that function related to photosynthesis. Nine function unknown proteins belong to this group were further analyzed in the light responsive expression, evolutionary tree and sub-cellular localization analysis. Based on the results, five proteins were suggested to be involved in photosynthesis. Taken together, these results reveal the molecular details of different roles of mulberry leaves at different developmental stages and contribute to the identification of five proteins that might function related to photosynthesis.

2021 ◽  
Annelies Bogaert ◽  
Daria Fijalkowska ◽  
An Staes ◽  
Tessa Van de Steene ◽  
Hans Demol ◽  

Ribosome profiling has revealed translation outside of canonical coding sequences (CDSs) including translation of short upstream ORFs, long non-coding RNAs, overlapping ORFs, ORFs in UTRs or ORFs in alternative reading frames. Studies combining mass spectrometry, ribosome profiling and CRISPR-based screens showed that hundreds of ORFs derived from non-coding transcripts produce (micro)proteins, while other studies failed to find evidence for such types of non-canonical translation products. Here, we attempted to discover translation products from non-coding regions by strongly reducing the complexity of the sample prior to mass spectrometric analysis. We used an extended database as the search space and applied stringent filtering of the identified peptides to find evidence for novel translation events. Theoretically, we show that our strategy facilitates the detection of translation events of transcripts from non-coding regions, but experimentally only find 19 peptides (less than 1% of all identified peptides) that might originate from such translation events. Virotrap based interactome analysis of two N-terminal proteoforms originating from non-coding regions finally showed the functional potential of these novel proteins.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Michael R. Miller ◽  
Michael Robinson ◽  
Lisa Fischer ◽  
Alicia DiBattista ◽  
Maitray A. Patel ◽  

Sport concussions can be difficult to diagnose and if missed, they can expose athletes to greater injury risk and long-lasting neurological disabilities. Discovery of objective biomarkers to aid concussion diagnosis is critical to protecting athlete brain health. To this end, we performed targeted proteomics on plasma obtained from adolescent athletes suffering a sports concussion. A total of 11 concussed male athletes were enrolled at our academic Sport Medicine Concussion Clinic, as well as 24 sex-, age- and activity-matched healthy control subjects. Clinical evaluation was performed and blood was drawn within 72 h of injury. Proximity extension assays were performed for 1,472 plasma proteins; a total of six proteins were considered significantly different between cohorts (P < 0.01; five proteins decreased and one protein increased). Receiver operating characteristic curves on the six individual protein biomarkers identified had areas-under-the-curves (AUCs) for concussion diagnosis ≥0.78; antioxidant 1 copper chaperone (ATOX1; AUC 0.81, P = 0.003), secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC; AUC 0.81, P = 0.004), cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34; AUC 0.79, P = 0.006), polyglutamine binding protein 1 (PQBP1; AUC 0.78, P = 0.008), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-like 1 (IGFBPL1; AUC 0.78, P = 0.008) and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase 3A (NT5C3A; AUC 0.78, P = 0.009). Combining three of the protein biomarkers (ATOX1, SPARC and NT5C3A), produced an AUC of 0.98 for concussion diagnoses (P < 0.001; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.00). Despite a paucity of studies on these three identified proteins, the available evidence points to their roles in modulating tissue inflammation and regulating integrity of the cerebral microvasculature. Taken together, our exploratory data suggest that three or less novel proteins, which are amenable to a point-of-care immunoassay, may be future candidate biomarkers for screening adolescent sport concussion. Validation with protein assays is required in larger cohorts.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (12) ◽  
pp. e0009985
Magamba Tounkara ◽  
Alain Boulangé ◽  
Magali Thonnus ◽  
Frédéric Bringaud ◽  
Adrien Marie Gaston Bélem ◽  

African trypanosomosis, a parasitic disease caused by protozoan parasites transmitted by tsetse flies, affects both humans and animals in sub-Saharan Africa. While the human form (HAT) is now limited to foci, the animal form (AAT) is widespread and affects the majority of sub-Saharan African countries, and constitutes a real obstacle to the development of animal breeding. The control of AAT is hampered by a lack of standardized and easy-to used diagnosis tools. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic potential of TbLysoPLA and TbGK proteins from Trypanosoma brucei brucei for AAT serodiagnosis in indirect ELISA using experimental and field sera, individually, in combination, and associated with the BiP C-terminal domain (C25) from T. congolense. These novel proteins were characterized in silico, and their sequence analysis showed strong identities with their orthologs in other trypanosomes (more than 60% for TbLysoPLA and more than 82% for TbGK). TbLysoPLA displays a low homology with cattle (<35%) and Piroplasma (<15%). However, TbGK shares more than 58% with cattle and between 45–55% with Piroplasma. We could identify seven predicted epitopes on TbLysoPLA sequence and 14 potential epitopes on TbGK. Both proteins were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. Their diagnostic potential was evaluated by ELISA with sera from cattle experimentally infected with T. congolense and with T.b. brucei, sera from cattle naturally infected with T. congolense, T. vivax and T.b. brucei. Both proteins used separately had poor diagnostic performance. However, used together with the BiP protein, they showed 60% of sensitivity and between 87–96% of specificity, comparable to reference ELISA tests. In conclusion, we showed that the performance of the protein combinations is much better than the proteins tested individually for the diagnosis of AAT.

2021 ◽  
Chihiro Sakaguchi ◽  
Kazuya Ichihara ◽  
Akihiro Nita ◽  
Yuta Katayama ◽  
Keiichi I. Nakayama

2021 ◽  
Viola Krenzlin ◽  
Julian Roewe ◽  
Marcel Strueve ◽  
María Martínez-Negro ◽  
Christoph Reinhardt ◽  

AbstractPolyphosphates are linear chains of orthophosphate residues that are present in all living cells. Polyphosphates are released from platelet d-granules and are also produced in bacteria. Polyphosphates are procoagulant in mammalian species and in bacteria are required for energy and phosphate storage, stress resistance, chelation of metal ions and escaping host immunity. Despite these pleiotropic effects, sparse information is available on molecular binding partners of polyphosphates. Here, we used a slide-based human proteome microarray screen for the search of polyphosphate-binding proteins. This approach suggested several novel proteins with relation to the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway. The highest signals were obtained for Disabled-1 (DAB1) and phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase 2B (PIP4K2B). Isothermal titration calorimetry was used for confirmation of DAB1 interactions with long-chain polyphosphates. These results offer new rationale to further investigate the interference of polyphosphates with intracellular signaling pathways.

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