Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) Pea is essential for wrinkly colony morphology, pellicle formation, and robust biofilm production in
. The second messenger cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) induces wrinkly colony morphology in
through unknown mechanism(s). Herein, we found that c-di-GMP modulated wrinkly colony morphology via regulating expression of
), a small individually transcribed gene with 177 base pairs, and this gene was adjacent to the upstream of
cluster. Phenotype observation revealed that
was essential for Pea-dependent phenotypes. The deletion of
led to smooth colony morphology and impaired biofilm, which was analogous to the phenotypes with the loss of the entire
expression was positively regulated by c-di-GMP via the transcriptional effector FleQ, and
was essential for the c-di-GMP-induced wrinkly colony morphology. Structure prediction results implied that EppA had two transmembrane regions, and Western blot revealed that EppA was located on cell membrane. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that EppA had no significant effect on transcriptomic profile of
. Bacterial two-hybrid (BTH) assay suggested that there was no direct interaction between EppA and the proteins in
cluster and adjacent operons. Overall, these findings reveal that EppA is essential for Pea-dependent phenotypes, and that c-di-GMP modulates Pea-dependent phenotypes via regulating
Microbe-secreted EPSs are high molecular weight polysaccharides that have the potential to be used as industrially important biomaterials. The EPS Pea in
is essential for wrinkly colony morphology and pellicle formation. Here, we identified a function-unknown protein EppA, which was also essential for Pea-dependent wrinkly colony morphology and pellicle formation, and EppA was probably involved in Pea secretion. Meanwhile, our results indicated that the second messenger c-di-GMP positively regulated the expression of EppA, resulting in Pea-dependent wrinkly colony morphology. Our results reveal the relationship of c-di-GMP, EppA, and Pea-dependent phenotypes, and provide possible pathway to construct genetically engineered strain for high Pea production.
The HD-GYP domain, named after two of its conserved sequence motifs, was first described in 1999 as a specialized version of the widespread HD phosphohydrolase domain that had additional highly conserved amino acid residues. Domain associations of HD-GYP indicated its involvement in bacterial signal transduction and distribution patterns of this domain suggested that it could serve as a hydrolase of the bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP, in addition to or instead of the EAL domain. Subsequent studies confirmed the ability of various HD-GYP domains to hydrolyze c-di-GMP to linear pGpG and/or GMP. Certain HD-GYP-containing proteins hydrolyze another second messenger, cGAMP, and some HD-GYP domains participate in regulatory protein-protein interactions. The recently solved structures of HD-GYP domains from four distinct organisms clarified the mechanisms of c-di-GMP binding and metal-assisted hydrolysis. However, the HD-GYP domain is poorly represented in public domain databases, which causes certain confusion about its phylogenetic distribution, functions, and domain architectures. Here, we present a refined sequence model for the HD-GYP domain and describe the roles of its most conserved residues in metal and/or substrate binding. We also calculate the numbers of HD-GYPs encoded in various genomes and list the most common domain combinations involving HD-GYP, such as the RpfG (REC–HD-GYP), Bd1817 (DUF3391– HD-GYP), and PmGH (GAF–HD-GYP) protein families. We also provide the descriptions of six HD-GYP–associated domains, including four novel integral membrane sensor domains. This work is expected to stimulate studies of diverse HD-GYP-containing proteins, their N-terminal sensor domains and the signals to which they respond.
The HD-GYP domain forms class II of c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases that control the cellular levels of the universal bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP and therefore affect flagellar and/or twitching motility, cell development, biofilm formation, and, often, virulence. Despite more than 20 years of research, HD-GYP domains are insufficiently characterized; they are often confused with ‘classical’ HD domains that are involved in various housekeeping activities and may participate in signaling, hydrolyzing (p)ppGpp and c-di-AMP. This work provides an updated description of the HD-GYP domain, including its sequence conservation, phylogenetic distribution, domain architectures, and the most widespread HD-GYP-containing protein families. This work shows that HD-GYP domains are widespread in many environmental bacteria and are predominant c-di-GMP hydrolases in many lineages, including clostridia and
Cyclic di-nucleotides (CDNs) are widespread second messenger signalling molecules that regulate fundamental biological processes across the tree of life. These molecules are also potent modulators of the immune system, inducing a Type I interferon response upon binding to the eukaryotic receptor STING. Such a response in tumours induces potent immune anti-cancer responses and thus CDNs are being developed as a novel cancer immunotherapy. In this review, I will highlight the use, challenges and advantages of using naturally occurring CDNs to treat cancer.
Infections caused by
are a leading cause of mortality. Treating infections caused by
is difficult due to resistance against most traditional antibiotics, including β-lactams. We previously reported the presence of mutations in
strains that were obtained by serial passaging in β-lactam drugs. Similar mutations have recently been reported in natural
isolates that are either non-susceptible or resistant to β-lactam antibiotics.
codes for a phosphodiesterase that cleaves cyclic-di-AMP (CDA), a newly discovered second messenger. In this study, we sought to identify the role of
in β-lactam resistance in
. Our results showed that
associated mutations caused loss of phosphodiesterase function, leading to increased CDA accumulation in the bacterial cytosol. Deletion of
led to an enhanced ability of the bacteria to withstand a β-lactam challenge (two to three log increase in bacterial colony forming units) by promoting tolerance without enhancing MICs of β-lactam antibiotics. Our results demonstrated that increased drug tolerance due to loss of GdpP function can provide a selective advantage in acquisition of high-level β-lactam resistance. Loss of GdpP function thus increases tolerance to β-lactams that can lead to its therapy failure and can permit β-lactam resistance to occur more readily.
Endogenous ouabain (EO) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are important in regulation of sodium and fluid balance. There is indirect evidence that ANP may be involved in the regulation of endogenous cardenolides.
H295R are human adrenocortical cells known to release EO. Cells were treated with ANP at physiologic concentrations or vehicle (0.1% DMSO), with or without guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 1,2,4 oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), the intracellular second messenger of ANP, was measured by a chemiluminescent immunoassay and EO was measured by radioimmunoassay of C18 extracted samples.
EO secretion is inhibited by ANP treatment, with the most prolonged inhibition (90 min vs ≤ 60 min) occurring at physiologic ANP concentrations (50 pg/mL). Inhibition of guanylyl cyclase with ODQ, also reduces EO secretion. The inhibitory effects on EO release in response to cotreatment with ANP and ODQ appeared to be additive.
ANP inhibits basal EO secretion, and it is unlikely that this is mediated through ANP-A or ANP-B receptors (the most common natriuretic peptide receptors) or their cGMP second messenger; the underlying mechanisms involved are not revealed in the current studies. The role of ANP in the control of EO synthesis and secretion in vivo requires further investigation.
Within the last 60 years, microbiological research has challenged many dogmas such as bacteria being unicellular microorganisms directed by nutrient sources; these investigations produced new dogmas such as cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (cyclic di-GMP) second messenger signaling as a ubiquitous regulator of the fundamental sessility/motility lifestyle switch on the single-cell level. Successive investigations have not yet challenged this view; however, the complexity of cyclic di-GMP as an intracellular bacterial signal, and, less explored, as an extracellular signaling molecule in combination with the conformational flexibility of the molecule, provides endless opportunities for cross-kingdom interactions. Cyclic di-GMP-directed microbial biofilms commonly stimulate the immune system on a lower level, whereas host-sensed cyclic di-GMP broadly stimulates the innate and adaptive immune responses. Furthermore, while the intracellular second messenger cyclic di-GMP signaling promotes bacterial biofilm formation and chronic infections, oppositely, <i>Salmonella</i> Typhimurium cellulose biofilm inside immune cells is not endorsed. These observations only touch on the complexity of the interaction of biofilm microbial cells with its host. In this review, we describe the Yin and Yang interactive concepts of biofilm formation and cyclic di-GMP signaling using <i>S</i>. Typhimurium as an example.
Cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) is a universal second messenger in bacteria. The large number of c-di-GMP-related diguanylate cyclases (DGCs), phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and effectors are responsible for the complexity and dynamics of c-di-GMP signaling. Some of these components deploy various methods to avoid undesired crosstalk to maintain signaling specificity. Synthesis of the antibiotic HSAF (
is regulated by a specific c-di-GMP signaling pathway that includes a PDE LchP and a c-di-GMP effector Clp (also a transcriptional regulator). In the present study, from among 19 DGCs, we identified a diguanylate cyclase, LchD, which participates in this pathway. Subsequent investigation indicates that LchD and LchP physically interact and that the catalytic center of LchD is required for both the formation of the LchD-LchP complex and HSAF production. All the detected phenotypes support that LchD and LchP dispaly local c-di-GMP signaling to regulate HSAF biosynthesis. Although direct evidence is lacking, our investigation, which shows that the interaction between a DGC and a PDE maintains the specificity of c-di-GMP signaling, suggests the possibility of the existence of local c-di-GMP pools in bacteria.
Cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) is a universal second messenger in bacteria. Signaling of c-di-GMP is complex and dynamic, and it is mediated by a large number of components, including c-di-GMP synthases (diguanylate cyclases. DGCs), c-di-GMP degrading enzymes (phosphodiesterases, PDEs), and c-di-GMP effectors. These components deploy various methods to avoid undesired crosstalk to maintain signaling specificity. In the present study, we identified a DGC that interacted with a PDE to specifically regulate antibiotic biosynthesis in
. We provide direct evidence to show that the DGC and PDE form a complex, and also indirect evidence to argue that they may balance a local c-di-GMP pool to control the antibiotic production. The results represent an important finding regarding the mechanism of a pair of DGC and PDE to control the expression of specific c-di-GMP signaling pathways.