bimolecular fluorescence complementation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xiaokun Liu ◽  
Jingjing Duan ◽  
Dan Huo ◽  
Qinqin Li ◽  
Qiaoyun Wang ◽  
...  

Paeonia qiui is a wild species of tree peony native to China. Its leaves are purplish red from the bud germination to the flowering stage, and anthocyanin is the main pigment in purplish red leaves. However, the anthocyanin synthesis regulation mechanism in tree peony leaves remains unclear. In this study, an R2R3-MYB, PqMYB113 was identified from the leaves of P. qiui. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PqMYB113 clustered with Liquidambar LfMYB113 and grape VvMYBA6. Subcellular location analysis showed that PqMYB113 was located in the cell nucleus. The transient reporter assay suggested that PqMYB113 was a transcriptional activator. The overexpression of PqMYB113 in Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) resulted in increased anthocyanin accumulation and the upregulation of CHS, F3H, F3’H, DFR, and ANS. The dual luciferase reporter assay showed that PqMYB113 could activate the promoters of PqDFR and PqANS. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays and yeast two-hybrid assays suggested that PqMYB113 could form a ternary MBW complex with PqbHLH1 and PqWD40 cofactors. These results provide insight into the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in tree peony leaves.


BMC Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Soyeon Lee ◽  
Dongkeun Park ◽  
Chunghun Lim ◽  
Jae-Ick Kim ◽  
Kyung-Tai Min

Abstract Background The establishment and maintenance of functional neural connections relies on appropriate distribution and localization of mitochondria in neurites, as these organelles provide essential energy and metabolites. In particular, mitochondria are transported to axons and support local energy production to maintain energy-demanding neuronal processes including axon branching, growth, and regeneration. Additionally, local protein synthesis is required for structural and functional changes in axons, with nuclear-encoded mitochondrial mRNAs having been found localized in axons. However, it remains unclear whether these mRNAs are locally translated and whether the potential translated mitochondrial proteins are involved in the regulation of mitochondrial functions in axons. Here, we aim to further understand the purpose of such compartmentalization by focusing on the role of mitochondrial initiation factor 3 (mtIF3), whose nuclear-encoded transcripts have been shown to be present in axonal growth cones. Results We demonstrate that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) induces local translation of mtIF3 mRNA in axonal growth cones. Subsequently, mtIF3 protein is translocated into axonal mitochondria and promotes mitochondrial translation as assessed by our newly developed bimolecular fluorescence complementation sensor for the assembly of mitochondrial ribosomes. We further show that BDNF-induced axonal growth requires mtIF3-dependent mitochondrial translation in distal axons. Conclusion We describe a previously unknown function of mitochondrial initiation factor 3 (mtIF3) in axonal protein synthesis and development. These findings provide insight into the way neurons adaptively control mitochondrial physiology and axonal development via local mtIF3 translation.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Minghai Chen ◽  
Chuang Yan ◽  
Luping Zheng ◽  
Xian-En Zhang

Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and its derivative molecular biosensor systems provide effective tools for visualizing biomolecular interactions. The introduction of red and near-infrared fluorescence emission proteins has expanded the spectrum...


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ruth R. Finkelstein ◽  
Tim Lynch ◽  
Guillaume Nee ◽  
Avan Chu ◽  
Thorben Krüger ◽  
...  

Overexpression of ABI5/ABF interacting proteins (AFPs) results in extreme ABA resistance of seeds and failure to acquire desiccation tolerance, at least in part through effects on chromatin modification. This study tests the hypothesis that the AFPs promote germination by also functioning as adapters for E3 ligases that ubiquitinate ABI5, leading to its degradation. Interactions between AFPs and two well-characterized classes of E3 ligases targeting ABI5, DWD HYPERSENSITIVE TO ABA (DWA)s and KEEP ON GOING (KEG), were analyzed by yeast two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and genetic assays. Although the AFPs and E3 ligases showed weak direct interactions, loss of function for the E3 ligases did not impair ABA-resistance conferred by overexpression of the YFP-AFP2 fusion. Comparison of ABI5 and AFP2 levels in these lines showed that AFP2 accumulation increased during germination, but that ABI5 degradation followed germination, demonstrating that AFP2 controls ABA sensitivity during germination independently of ABI5 degradation. Surprisingly, AFP2 overexpression in the dwa1 dwa2 mutant background produced the unusual combination of extreme ABA resistance and desiccation tolerance, creating an opportunity to separate the underlying biochemical characteristics of ABA sensitivity and desiccation tolerance that we investigated by quantitative proteomics. Our analysis identified at least three-fold more differentially accumulated seed proteins than previous studies. Comparison of dry seed proteomes of the different genotypes allowed us to separate and refine the changes in protein accumulation patterns correlating with desiccation tolerance independently of ABA sensitivity, or vice versa, to a subset of cold-induced and defense stress-responsive proteins and signaling regulators.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13658
Author(s):  
Jae Ho Kim ◽  
Moon Seok Kim ◽  
Dae Yeon Kim ◽  
Joseph Noble Amoah ◽  
Yong Weon Seo

Plant U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase (PUB) is involved in various environmental stress conditions. However, the molecular mechanism of U-box proteins in response to abiotic stress in wheat remains unknown. In this study, two U-box E3 ligase genes (TaPUB2 and TaPUB3), which are highly expressed in response to adverse abiotic stresses, were isolated from common wheat, and their cellular functions were characterized under drought stress. Transient expression assay revealed that TaPUB2 was localized in the cytoplasm and Golgi apparatus, whereas TaPUB3 was expressed only in the Golgi apparatus in wheat protoplasts. Additionally, TaPUB2 and TaPUB3 underwent self-ubiquitination. Moreover, TaPUB2/TaPUB3 heterodimer was identified in yeast and the cytoplasm of wheat protoplasts using a pull-down assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis. Heterogeneous overexpression of TaPUB2 and TaPUB3 conferred tolerance to drought stress. Taken together, these results implied that the heterodimeric form of U-box E3 ubiquitin ligases (TaPUB2/TaPUB3) responded to abiotic stress and roles as a positive regulator of drought stress tolerance.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13664
Author(s):  
Dan Li ◽  
Mingyuan Zhao ◽  
Jinshan Jia ◽  
Xiaoyan Yu ◽  
Lanyong Zhao ◽  
...  

Branch angle is a key shoot architecture trait that strongly influences the ornamental and economic value of garden plants. However, the mechanism underlying the control of branch angle, an important aspect of tree architecture, is far from clear in roses. In the present study, we isolated the RrLAZY1 gene from the stems of Rosa rugosa ‘Zilong wochi’. Sequence analysis showed that the encoded RrLAZY1 protein contained a conserved GΦL (A/T) IGT domain, which belongs to the IGT family. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed that RrLAZY1 was expressed in all tissues and that expression was highest in the stem. The RrLAZY1 protein was localized in the plasma membrane. Based on a yeast two-hybrid assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation experiments, the RrLAZY1 protein was found to interact with auxin-related proteins RrIAA16. The over-expression of the RrLAZY1 gene displayed a smaller branch angle in transgenic Arabidopsis inflorescence and resulted in changes in the expression level of genes related to auxin polar transport and signal transduction pathways. This study represents the first systematic analysis of the LAZY1 gene family in R. rugosa. The results of this study will provide a theoretical basis for the improvement of rose plant types and molecular breeding and provide valuable information for studying the regulation mechanism of branch angle in other woody plants.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13502
Author(s):  
Yue Zhang ◽  
Zhen Zeng ◽  
Yubing Yong ◽  
Yingmin Lyu

In lily reproduction, the mechanism of formation of bulbs has been a hot topic. However, studies on stem bulblet formation are limited. Stem bulblets, formed in the leaf axils of under- and above-ground stems, provide lilies with a strong capacity for self-propagation. First, we showed that above-ground stem bulblets can be induced by spraying 100 mg/L 6-BA on the LA hybrid lily ‘Aladdin’, with reduced endogenous IAA and GA4 and a higher relative content of cytokinins. Then, expression patterns of three potential genes (two KNOTTED1-like homeobox (KNOX) and one partial BEL1-like homeobox (BELL)), during stem bulblet formation from our previous study, were determined by RT-qPCR, presenting a down-up trend in KNOXs and a rising tendency in BELL. The partial BELL gene was cloned by RACE from L. ‘Aladdin’ and denoted LaBEL1. Physical interactions of LaKNOX1-LaBEL1 and LaKNOX1-LaKNOX2 were confirmed by yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. Furthermore, hormonal regulatory patterns of single LaKNOX1, LaKNOX2, LaBEL1, and their heterodimers, were revealed in transgenic Arabidopsis, suggesting that the massive mRNA accumulations of LaKNOX1, LaKNOX2 and LaBEL1 genes during stem bulblet formation could cause the dramatic relative increase of cytokinins and the decline of GAs and IAA. Taken together, a putative model was proposed that LaKNOX1 interacts with LaKNOX2 and LaBEL1 to regulate multiple phytohormones simultaneously for an appropriate hormonal homeostasis, which suggests their potential role in stem bulblet formation in L. ‘Aladdin’.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yixi Wang ◽  
Shuangshuang Yan ◽  
Bingwei Yu ◽  
Yuwei Gan ◽  
Jiangjun Lei ◽  
...  

AbstractBacterial wilt (BW) is a soil-borne disease that severely impacts plant growth and productivity globally. Ubiquitination plays a crucial role in disease resistance. Our previous research indicated that NAC transcription factor SmNAC negatively regulates BW resistance in eggplant (Solanum melongena). However, whether the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system (UPS) participates in this regulation is unknown.This study used SmNAC as a bait to screen eggplant cDNA library and obtained SmDDA1b, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Subcellular location and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays revealed that SmDDA1b could interact with SmNAC in the nucleus. The in vivo and in vitro ubiquitination experiments indicated that SmDDA1b can degrade SmNAC through UPS. However, the discovery of negative regulation of SmDDA1b expression by SmNAC showed that there was a negative feedback loop between SmNAC and SmDDA1b in eggplant.The SmDDA1b-overexpressed lines showed a higher BW resistance associated with high expression levels of salicylic acid (SA)-related genes and SA content than the wild-type lines. However, SmDDA1b-silencing lines showed the opposite results, indicating that SmDDA1b is a positive regulatory gene for BW resistance.This study provides a candidate gene that can enhance BW resistance in eggplants. In addition, it provides insight into a mechanism that promotes plant disease resistance via the SmDDA1b-SmNAC-SA pathway.


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