Detection of intermediates during the catalytic process by infrared techniques has been widely implemented for many important reactions. For the reduction of CO2 into hydrocarbons on metal surfaces, CO molecule is one of the most important transient species to be followed due to its involvement in several products’ pathways, and its distinct vibrational features. Herein, basic understandings behind these utilized infrared techniques are illustrated aiming for highlighting the potential of each infrared technique and its advantages over the other ones for detecting CO molecules on metal surfaces.
A series of LaNiO3 materials were synthesized by the EDTA–citrate complexing method, modifying different physicochemical conditions. The LaNiO3 samples were calcined between 600 and 800 °C and characterized by XRD, SEM, XPS, CO-TPD, TG, DT, and N2 adsorption. The results evidence that although all the samples presented the same crystal phase, LaNiO3 as expected, some microstructural and superficial features varied as a function of the calcination temperature. Then, LaNiO3 samples were tested as catalysts of the CO oxidation process, a reaction never thoroughly analyzed employing this material. The catalytic results showed that LaNiO3 samples calcined at temperatures of 600 and 700 °C reached complete CO conversions at ~240 °C, while the sample thermally treated at 800 °C only achieved a 100% of CO conversion at temperatures higher than 300 °C. DRIFTS and XRD were used for studying the reaction mechanism and the catalysts’ structural stability, respectively. Finally, the obtained results were compared with different Ni-containing materials used in the same catalytic process, establishing that LaNiO3 has adequate properties for the CO oxidation process.
Halodefluorination of alkylfluorides using Group 13 metal halides has been known for quite some time (first reported by Newman in 1938) and is often utilised in its crude stoichiometric form to substitute fluorine with heavier halogens. However, recently halodefluorination has undergone many developments. The reaction can be effected with a range of metal halide sources (including s-block, f-block and p-block metals), and has been developed into a catalytic process. Further, methods for monoselective halodefluorination in polyfluorocarbons have been developed allowing exchange of only a single fluorine with a heavier halogen. The reaction has also found use in cascade processes where the final product may not even contain halide, yet the conversion of fluorine to more reactive halogens is a pivotal reaction step in the cascade. This review provides a summary of the developments in the reaction since its inception until now.
We have previously published new biheterocyclic phospohonic -amino esters of the 1,2,3-triazole-benzimidazole and 1,2,3-triazole-carbazole type. The aim of the present paper was to describe a new phosponic aminoester bearing a triazole ring substituted in position 5 by an ester group. Thus, according to the same catalytic process used previously, the compound naphthalen-2-yl 1-(benzamido(diethoxyphosphoryl)methyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylate was synthesized with an excellent yield and high regioselectivity via the copper (I)-catalyzed alkyne–azide cycloaddition reaction (CuAAC), using diethyl (-azido(benzamido)methyl)phosphonate (1) as a dipole and 2- naphthyl propiolate as a dipolarophile (2). The structure of the new compound was fully characterized by 1D (31P, 1H, 13C) and 2D (1H-1H and 1H-13C) NMR spectroscopy, IR, and HRMS.
Amylomaltases (4-α-glucanotransferases, E.C. 18.104.22.168) are enzymes which can perform a double-step catalytic process, resulting in a transglycosylation reaction. They hydrolyse glucosidic bonds of α-1,4′-d-glucans and transfer the glucan portion with the newly available anomeric carbon to the 4′-position of an α-1,4′-d-glucan acceptor. The intramolecular reaction produces a cyclic α-1,4′-glucan. Amylomaltases can be found only in prokaryotes, where they are involved in glycogen degradation and maltose metabolism. These enzymes are being studied for possible biotechnological applications, such as the production of (i) sugar substitutes; (ii) cycloamyloses (molecules larger than cyclodextrins), which could potentially be useful as carriers and encapsulating agents for hydrophobic molecules and also as effective protein chaperons; and (iii) thermoreversible starch gels, which could be used as non-animal gelatin substitutes. Extremophilic prokaryotes have been investigated for the identification of amylomaltases to be used in the starch modifying processes, which require high temperatures or extreme conditions. The aim of this article is to present an updated overview of studies on amylomaltases from extremophilic Bacteria and Archaea, including data about their distribution, activity, potential industrial application and structure.