critical understanding
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Gwilym Beckerlegge

AbstractSvāmī Vivekānanda’s (1863–1902) relationship with his guru Śrī Rāmakṛṣṇa (ca. 1836–1886), and his role in the creation of the Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission in the final decade of the nineteenth century, has attracted far more scholarly attention than the meanings invested in Vivekānanda after his death by devotees and admirers beyond the Math and Mission and by the various organizations that have disseminated these meanings. To redress this imbalance, this article examines the message embodied in, and projected by, the Vivekananda Rock Memorial at Kanniyakumari. It explores the Memorial’s contribution to Kanniyakumari’s expanding role as a tourist destination and the problematic nature of the story that has provided the rationale for the Memorial’s location. It shows how evolving versions of this story have fed the different understandings of Vivekānanda’s mission now institutionalized respectively in the Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission and the Vivekananda Kendra, which manages the Memorial. It argues that the creation of the Memorial has directed attention away from Kolkata (Calcutta), the scene of Vivekānanda’s interaction with his guru Rāmakṛṣṇa, and thus away from that seminal relationship. The Memorial presents, instead, Vivekānanda’s experience at Kanniyakumari as the defining moment in his evolving mission as a “spiritual nationalist.” The article concludes by noting implications of this shift for the critical understanding of Vivekānanda, emphasizing the importance of the Rock Memorial’s function as an increasingly popular portal to “Vivekānanda of Kanniyakumari.”

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (6) ◽  
Jie Wang

In-depth learning is a learning method, which can transfer knowledge and solve problems in various complex and real situations through learners' critical understanding and thinking towards learning content. Guided by the subject core competence, the integrated course of English reading and writing should combine autonomous and cooperative learning to promote the perceptual understanding, and then design multi angle writing training such as text structure imitation, plot rewriting and ending continuation, so as to promote the application and transfer of language knowledge to promote students' in-depth learning.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 88-96
Knut Sørensen

In the 2020 Prague Virtual Conference of the Society for Social Studies of Science (4S), Sharon Traweek was awarded the society’s John D. Bernal Prize jointly with Langdon Winner. The Bernal Prize is awarded annually to individuals who have made distinguished contributions to the field of STS. Prize recipients include founders of the field of STS, along with outstanding scholars who have devoted their careers to the understanding of the social dimensions of science and technology. In this essay responding to Traweek's Bernal lecture, Sørensen draws on her critical understanding of academic disciplines to discuss how STS may develop the field’s understanding of disciplines, interdisciplinarity, and itself.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (9) ◽  
pp. 2062-2065
Madona Baby ◽  
Prathibha Kulkarni

Ayurveda is mainly based on dosha, dhatu and mala. Mala are the substances or waste matters That are excreted out of the body. They are by-products formed as a result of various physiological activities happening inside the body. Purisha, Mutra and Sweda are considered as the main excretory product of the body and called mala. Urine formation is one of the important physiological activities of the human body in which Mutravaha Moola and waste products of Ahara Rasa contribute significantly. Basti, Mutravaha Srotansi, Vrikka, Mutravaha Nadies, Mutravaha Dhamanis and Mutravaha Sira, etc. Are major body parts which play a significant role in the process of urine formation. While modern science described the urinary bladder, nephrons, kidneys, ureters and urethra, etc as vital parts of urine formations. This article tries to critically review the formation of urine according to Ayurveda. Keywords: Mala, Mutra, Mutravaha Srothas, urine formation

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (1) ◽  
pp. 59-71
Alexandra A. Kosorukova ◽  
Ulyana V. Zubkova

The article analyzes the types of "meek" and "proud" female images in the works of F.M. Dostoevsky in connection with the typologies of the images of the writer among the literary critics N.A. Dobrolyubov, V.F. Pereverzev and A.A. Gizetti. The article refers to the classical authors of the early critical understanding of Dostoevsky's works, who divided female images into two opposite types of the "meek" and "proud". At the same time, the article emphasizes the idea that in Dostoevsky's polyphonic world every literary hero has a multidimensional consciousness, which is why the direct dichotomous division into the "proud" and "meek" can only be a rough generalization. The first part of the article examines the typologies of N.A. Dobrolyubov, as well as one of V.F. Pereverzev, who creates the most ambitious and significant typology, considering female images. He sensitively notices the ambiguity and tragedy of Dostoevsky's heroines and introduces the term "the doppelgngerwoman" into the typology of female images, on the basis of which each heroine somehow contains a certain internal conflict, the solution of which in the course of a novel allows her character to develop towards one of the indicated subtypes. The second part of the article analyzes the typology of A.A. Gizetti, who in his research focuses on such type of Dostoevsky's female images as the "proud", highlighting a new, "mysterious" subtype of the Dostoevsky's proud heroine. In the performed comparison of "meek" and "proud" types of female images it is considered to distinguish positive and negative ethical meanings of them. The article formulates conclusions about the various subtypes of "meek" and "proud" characters in the writer's artistic world, and outlines the grounds for further system of understanding of meekness and pride on a scale of correlation with vice and virtue.

Carmen García Navarro

This paper explores Anne Carson’s “Kinds of Water: An Essay on the Road to Compostela,” the author’s journal on her pilgrimage to Santiago. Taking water as a metaphor for the Camino, the text reflects the creative dimension of the pilgrimage both from an artistic and personal standpoint. Alternative discourses of the female writer and pilgrim occur in a text that is an essay and a meditation on the forms of resilience put into practice by Carson after facing a series of personal losses. The progressive construction of self-knowledge is seen as an emancipatory act that transcended Carson’s mourning period in her experience, which she took as an opportunity to embrace personal transformation. I suggest that my approach can bring useful perspectives not only to further and refine knowledge on Carson in Spain but also for the consideration of resilience as an aspect that contributes to the critical understanding of narratives of individual and social transformation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (9) ◽  
pp. 70-77
Christine Carmela R. RAMOS ◽  

Globalization is viewed in this work as a critical concept by which we understand the transition of human society into the post-pandemic era. In this vein, this paper attempts to look into the process of globalization and its central feature, technology. Technology has become a global force that affects political, social, ethical, and environmental. The ancient Greeks, such as Plato and Aristotle, who lived in aristocratic societies, rejected discourse on technology as unworthy. Social, political, and theoretical activities, rather than technical, were deemed as the highest forms. Plato, for instance, alluded to the artisans merely as the cheapest form of metal compared to gold associated with the philosopher-rulers, while silver is equivalent to the warrior class. Technological change, defined as "progress," is seen as an inevitable process in modern history. This paper explored issues of globalization and the implications of technology, employing crucial viewpoints of Martin Heidegger, acknowledged as one of the powerful and influential philosophers of the 20th century. Specifically, this paper explored “machination (Machenschaft)” and Heidegger’s Technik (Technology) or Gestell (Enframing). Machination is not just human conduct but the act of manipulation. It is a revelation of beings as a whole as exploitable and manipulable objects. The world seems to be a collection of present-at-hand thing with no intrinsic meaning or purpose, a cold place where we cannot put down any roots. All we can do is calculate and control. We observe and measure everything. We make things go faster and faster. Thus, there is a need to discuss and recognize issues related to technology. Heidegger's thoughts offer analytic tools that contribute to a critical understanding of the multidimensional effects, risks, and possibilities brought about by modernity and its globalization..

Martin Brooks

Abstract This essay describes Ivor Gurney’s use of the word ‘strafe’ in his poems of the First World War. At the outbreak of the War, the word was a new arrival in the English national consciousness. It had come to prominence in the German Army’s slogan, ‘Gott strafe England’ (‘God punish England’). Allied counterpropagandists soon redeployed this slogan as evidence that the German people were hateful and frenzied, and it gained currency as an informal English noun for a German artillery bombardment. In poems dating from during and after the War, Gurney draws on ‘strafe’s’ interlinguistic existence to express his contempt for the two powers’ propaganda. In treating the word as fluctuating between two languages, Gurney stages his separation from both English and German narratives of nationhood. Tracking his use of the word ‘strafe’ shows how he described the importance of individual experiences for understanding the War, portrayed a sense of ‘Wonder’ that he suggested could define soldier poets, and expressed his post-war belief that England had betrayed him. By outlining how Gurney attached these possibilities to ‘strafe’, this essay contributes to the wider critical understanding of how and why he wrote about his War experiences.

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